John Encarnacion, Ph.D.

Director of Undergraduate Geoscience Programs
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences


Courses Taught

Earth's Dynamic Environment; Drifting Continents; Mineralogy; Petrology; Structural Geology; Special Topics: Ore Deposits; Special Topics: Optical Mineralogy/Petrography; Divergent and Convergent Margins; Isotope Geochemistry; Advanced Petrology; Geoscience Seminars; Journal Club

Research Interests

Encarnacion is interested in a variety of tectonic and petrologic problems dealing with subduction, magmatism, island arc and continental crustal growth as well as ore deposits. His research has taken him to Antarctica, China, Iceland, Madagascar, the Philippines, and southern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique).

Publications and Media Placements

48. Shavers*, E. Ghulam, A., and Encarnacion, J. (in revision) Surface Alteration of a Melilitite-Clan Carbonatite and the Potential for Remote Detection. Ore Geology Reviews

47. Shavers*, E. Ghulam, A., Encarnacion, J., and Hartling*, S. (2017) Emplacement of ultramafic-carbonatite intrusions along reactivated North American Mid-continent Rift structures. Tectonophysics, 712-713, 716-722. PDF

46. Keenan*, T. Encarnacion, J., Buchwaldt, R., Fernandez*, D., Mattinson, J.,Rasoazanamparany*, C., and Luetkemeyer*, P.B. (2016) Rapid conversion of an oceanic spreading center to a subduction zone inferred from high-precision geochronology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113 (47), E7359-E7366. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1609999113. PDF

45. Keenan*, T. and Encarnacion, J. (2016) Correspondence: Unclear causes for subduction. Nature Geoscience, 9, 338. PDF

44. Paulsen, T., Encarnacion, J., Grunow, A., and Pecha, M. (2016) Zircon U–Pb age constraints for a Cambrian age for metasedimentary rocks at O'Brien Peak, Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics. DOI: 10.1080/00288306.2016.1182033. PDF

43. Shavers*, E.J., Ghulam, A., Encarnacion, J., Bridges, D.L., Luetkemeyer*, P.B. (2016) Carbonatite associated with ultramafic diatremes in the Avon Volcanic District, Missouri, USA: Field, petrographic, and geochemical constraints. Lithos, 248-251, 506-516. PDF

42. Guo, X., Gao, R., Wang, H., Li, W., Keller, G.R., Xu, X., Li, H., and Encarnacion, J., (2015) Crustal structure beneath the Tibet-Ordos transition zone, NE Tibet, and the implications for plateau expansion. Geophysical Research Letters DOI:10.1002/2015GL066668 PDF

41. Paulsen, T.S., Encarnacion, J., Grunow, A.M., Valencia, V.A., Layer, P.W., Pecha, M., Stump, E., Roeske, S., Thao, S., and Rasoazanamparany*, C. (2015) Detrital mineral ages from the Ross Supergroup, Antarctica: Implications for the Queen Maud terrane and outboard sediment provenance on the Gondwana margin. Gondwana Research, 27, 377-391. PDF

40. Zhang, Z., Li, J., and Encarnacion, J. (2014) Iron Metallogeny in China --- An introduction to the special issue. Ore Geology Reviews, 57, 243-246. PDF

39. Hou, T., Zhang, Z., Pirajno, F., Santosh, M., Encarnacion, J., Liu, J., Zhao, Z., and Zhang, L. (2014) Geology, tectonic settings and iron ore metallogenesis associated with submarine volcanism in China: An overview. Ore Geology Reviews, 57, 498-517. PDF

38. Zhang, D., Zhang, Z., Huang, H., Encarnacion, J., Zhou, N., and Ding, X. (2014) Platinum group elemental and Re-Os isotopic geochemistry of the Wajilitag and Puchang Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits, northwestern Tarim large igneous province. Ore Geology Reviews, 57, 589-601. PDF

37. Hou*, T. Zhang, Z., Santosh, M., Encarnacion, J., Zhu, J. Luo, W. (2014) Geochronology and geochemistry of submarine volcanic rocks in the Yamansu iron deposit, Eastern Tianshan Mountains, NW China: Constraints on the metallogenesis. Ore Geology Reviews, 57, 487-502. PDF

36. Hou*, T., Zhang, Z. Santosh, M., Encarnacion, J., and Wang, M. (2013) The Cihai diabase in the Beishan region, NW China: Isotope geochronology, geochemistry and implications for Cornwall-style iron mineralization. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 70/71, 231-249. PDF

35. Paulsen, T., Encarnacion, J., Grunow, A., Valencia, V., Pecha, M., Layer, P., Rasoazanamparany*, C. (2013) Age and significance of 'outboard' high grade metamorphics and intrusives of the Ross Orogen, Antarctica. Gondwana Research, 24, 349-358. PDF

34. Hou*, T. Zhang, Z., Encarnacion, J., Santosh, M., and Sun, Y. (2013) The role of recycled oceanic crust in magmatism and metallogeny: Os-Sr-Nd isotopes, U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of picritic dykes in the Panzhihua giant Fe-Ti oxide deposit, central Emeishan large igneous province, SW China. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 165, 805-822. PDF

33. Guo*, X., Encarnacion, Xu, X., J., Deino, A., Li, Z., and Tian, X. (2012) Collision, rotation, and subduction withdrawal of the Yangtze block and the exhumation of UHP rocks in the Dabie Shan. Terra Nova, 24, 339–350. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2012.01072.x PDF

32. Hou*, T., Zhang, Z., Encarnacion, J., and Santosh, M. (2012) Petrogenesis of the Taihe gabbroic intrusion associated with Fe-Ti-oxide ores in the Panxi district, Emeishan large igneous province, SW China: Constraints on metallogenesis. Ore Geology Review, 49, 109-127. PDF

31. Amer*, R., Ripperdan, R., Tao, W., Encarnación, J. (2012) Groundwater Quality and Management in Arid and Semi-arid Regions: Case study, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 69, 13-25. PDF
30. Zhang, D., Zhang, Z., Encarnacion, J., Xue, C., Duan, S., Zhao, Z., and Liu, J. (2012) Petrogenesis of the Kekesai composite intrusion, western Tianshan, NW China: Implications for tectonic evolution during late Paleozoic time, Lithos, 146-147, pp. 65-79. PDF

29. Wang, M., Zhang, Z., Encarnacion, J., Hou*, T., Luo, W. (2012) Geochronology and geochemistry of the Nantianwan mafic-ultramafic complex, Emeishan large igneous province: constraints on the metallogenesis of magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits and geodynamic setting. International Geology Review, 54, 1746-1764. DOI: 10.1080/00206814.2012.668766 PDF

28. Amer*, R., Sultan, M., Ripperdan, R., and Encarnacion, J. (2012) Structural Architecture for Development of Marginal Extensional Sub-basins in the Red Sea Active Rift Zone. International Journal of Geosciences, 3, 133-152. DOI:10.4236/ijg.2012.31016 PDF

27. Hou*, T., Zhang, Z., Encarnacion, J. (2012) Geochronology and geochemistry of Washan dioritic porphyry associated with Kiruna-type iron ores, Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, Eastern China: implication for petrogenesis and mineralization. International Geology Review, 54, 1332-1352. DOI: 10.1080/00206814.2012.659109 PDF

26. Hou*, T., Zhang, Z., Ye, X., Encarnacion, and Reichow, M.K. (2011) Noble gas isotopic systematics of Fe-Ti-V oxide-hosted mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions in the Panxi area, China: The role of mafic recycled oceanic crust in their petrogenesis. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 6727-6741. PDF

25. Paulsen, T., Encarnacion J., Valencia, V., Roti-Roti, J., Rasoazanamparany*, C. (2011). Detrital U-Pb zircon analysis of an Eocene McMurdo Erratic sandstone, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 54:3, 353-360. PDF

24. Key, R.M., Pitfield, P.E., Thomas, R.J., Goodenough, K.M., de Waele, B., Schofield, D.I., Bauer, W., Horstwood, M.S.A., Styles, M.T., Conrad, J., Encarnacion, J., Lidke, D.J., O'Connor, E.A., Potter, C., Smith, R.A., Walsh, G.J., Ralison, A.V., Randriamananjara, T., Rafahatelo, J.M., and Rabarimanana, M. (2011) Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the East Africa-Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 357, 49-68. doi: 10.1144/SP357.4 PDF

23. Hou*, T., Zhang, Z. Encarnacion, J., Du, Y., Zhao, Z., Liu, J. (2010) Geochemistry of Late Mesozoic dioritic porphyries associated with Kiruna-style and stratabound carbonate-hosted Zhonggu iron ores, Middle–Lower Yangtze Valley, Eastern China: Constraints on petrogenesis and iron sources. Lithos, 119, 330-344. PDF

22. Paulsen, T., Encarnacion, J., Grunow, A., Valencia, V.and Rasoazanamparany*, C. (2008). Late Sinistral Shearing along Gondwana's Paleo-Pacific Margin in the Ross Orogen, Antarctica: New Structure and Age Data from the O'Brien Peak Area. Journal of Geology, 116, 303–312. PDF

21. Paulsen, T., Encarnacion, J., Grunow, A.M., Layer, P., Watkeys, M. (2007) New age constraints for a short pulse in Ross orogen deformation triggered by East–West Gondwana suturing. Gondwana Research, 12, 417-427. PDF

20. Encarnación, J., Paulsen, T., and Watkeys, M. (2005) Testing the SWEAT hypothesis and Neoproterozoic –Cambrian orogenies in the Nimrod Glacier area: Antarctic Journal of the U.S., 33, 351-356. PDF

19. Encarnacion, J. (2004) "Northern Philippine ophiolites: analogues to Precambrian greenstone belts?" in "Precambrian Ophiolites and Related Rocks", Developments in Precambrian Geology, vol. 13, pp. 615-625. Elsevier press. PDF

18. Encarnación, J. (2004) "Multiple ophiolite generation preserved in the northern Philippines and the growth of an island arc complex" Tectonophysics, 392, 103-130. PDF

17. Paulsen, T., Encarnacion, J., and Grunow, A. (2004) Structure and timing of deformation in the Shackleton Glacier area, Ross orogen, Antarctica. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 161, 1027-1038. PDF

16. Grunow, A.M. and Encarnacion, J. (2000) Cambro-Ordovician paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Revision of the Gondwana apparent Polar Wander Path. Geophysical Journal International, 141, 392-400. PDF

15. Kirschner, D., Encarnacion, J., and Agosta, F. (2000) Incorporating stable-isotope geochemistry in undergraduate laboratory courses. Journal of Geoscience Education, 48, 209-215.

14. Grunow, A.M. and Encarnación, J. (2000) Allochthonous terranes or true polar wander: New data from the Scott Glacier area, Antarctica: Tectonics, 19, 168-181. PDF

13. Encarnación, J., Rowell, A.J., and Grunow, A.M. (1999) A U-Pb age for the Cambrian Taylor Formation, Antarctica: Implications for the Cambrian timescale: Journal of Geology, 107, 497-504. PDF

12. Encarnación, J.P., Mukasa, S.B., and Evans, C. (1999) Subduction components and the generation of arc-like melts in the Zambales ophiolite (Philippines): Pb, Sr, Nd isotopic constraints: Chemical Geology, 156, 343-357. PDF

11. Grunow, A.M., Encarnacion, J., Paulsen, T., and Rowell, A.J. (1998) New geologic constraints on basement rocks from the Shackleton Glacier Region. Antarctic Journal of the U.S., 1996 Review Issue (Volume 31, number 2) PDF

10. Encarnación, J.P., and Mukasa, S.B. (1997) Age and geochemistry of an 'anorogenic' crustal melt and implications for the origin of I-type granites: Lithos, 42(1-2), 1-13. PDF

9. Encarnación, J.P., Grunow, A.M. (1996) Changing magmatic and tectonic styles along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana and the onset of early Paleozoic magmatism in Antarctica: Tectonics, 15, 1325-1341. PDF

8. Encarnación, J.P., Fleming, T.H., Elliot, D.H., and Eales, H.V. (1996) Synchronous emplacement of Ferrar and Karoo dolerites and the early break-up of Gondwana: Geology, 24, 535-538. PDF

7. Grunow, A.M. and J. Encarnacion (1995) Tectonic studies on Lower Paleozoic rocks from the Scott Glacier, Antarctica, Antarctic Journal of the United States, Review 1995, 30, 60-61.

6. Encarnación, J.P., Essene, E.J., Mukasa, S.B., Hall, C. (1995) High pressure and temperature subophiolitic kyanite garnet amphibolites generated during initiation of mid-Tertiary subduction, Palawan, Philippines: Journal of Petrology, 36, 1481-1503. PDF

5. Encarnación, J.P., S.B. Mukasa and E.C. Obille, Jr. (1993) Zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Zambales and Angat ophiolites, Luzon, Philippines: Evidence for and Eocene arc-back arc pair: Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 19991-20004. PDF

4. Grunow, A.M. and Encarnación, J.P. (1993) Paleomagnetic and geochronologic studies of igneous rocks from Southern Victoria Land: Antarctic Journal of the U.S., Review Issue, 28, 21-23. PDF

Geologic Maps

3. Encarnacion, J. and Pitfield, P.E.J. (2008) Geologic Map of Madagascar Sheet P51 Ambohimitombo [map]. Scale: 1:100,000. Keyworth, Nottingham, UK. Published by the British Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey. PDF

2. Encarnacion, J. and Key, R.M. (2008) Geologic Map of Madagascar Sheet S45 Didy [map]. Scale: 1:100,000. Keyworth, Nottingham, UK. Published by the British Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey. PDF

1. Key, R.M. and Pitfield, P.E.J., Encarnacion, J. (contributor) (2008) Geologic Map of Madagascar Sheet Q49 - Ambohimilanja [map]. Scale: 1:100,000. Keyworth, Nottingham, UK. Published by the British Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey. PDF

Community Work

  • Gives about a dozen presentations a year to K-12 schools and other public presentations on volcanoes, earthquakes, plate tectonics, and geoscience careers through the Partners in Education Program (Rockwood School District), the Academy of Science of Saint Louis, and the Saint Louis Science Center's Science Cafe series and OASIS program.
  • Leads the annual week-long departmental geoscience field trip 
  • Co-led several trips for the Saint Louis Science Center's Travel Programs