Marian Medical Miracles as a Tool for Cultural Syncretism and Political Hegemony in Thirteenth Century Iberia
Scholars have recognized the opportunity for interdisciplinary interrogation of thirteenth century Iberia available through the Cantigas de Santa Maria (Canticles of St. Mary, CSM) composed in Galician-Portuguese at the court of King Alfonso X the Learned. His father having reunited Christian Spain, Alfonso X devoted his rule towards a cultural identity dominated by Castilian language and Christianity. His court's legal, scientific, linguistic and cultural efforts supported that goal: He established universities; Muslim, Jewish and Christian scholars worked together to create a law code and astronomical-astrological works and to translate numerous religious and other texts from Arabic into Latin and Castilian. CSM was composed between 1252 and 1284 as a collection of 427 texts, among them prayers, songs, and over 350 Marian miracles, in large part illustrated and set to music. The miracles address numerous medical issues, which were often cured by the Virgin to save her followers, but at times ignored by her in case of non-Christians, and occasionally caused by her as punishment. Our project examines the nexus between political, daily life, religious, medical, cultural and intellectual spheres within CSM. We are parsing through the visual, musical and poetic rhetoric of the miracles to analyze the evidence of medical beliefs, gender relations, status of Jews, Muslims and those considered Christian heretics, and employment of Marian veneration for political sanction.
Dr. Francisco Gondim, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil
Sarah Hermes Griesbach, Department of Art History and Archaeology, Washington University
Amos Lieberman, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Dr. Julia Lieberman, Department of Modern and Classical Languages, Saint Louis University
Dr. Florian P. Thomas, Saint Louis University School of Medicine (Facilitator)
Perspectives on Health and Medicine in Africa
Culture and health intersect. Shifts in the nature of diseases and human contacts are dependent on contexts of environment, power, and history, all of which are anchored in culture. Micro-level studies focused on interactions between external and local cultures, or subsets within a broader culture, are critical to the understanding of content and direction of change in the development of health and medicine in Africa. This research group takes an intercultural perspective in examining a complex array of topics that include epidemiological patterns, health promotion and related behavior change, political and economic circumstances that are temporally and spatially contingent, causes and effects of specific diseases, production of knowledge and competing strategies in the institutionalization of medicinal cures, as well as the role of local and international organizations in the development of health services in Africa.
Visual and Performing Arts as Vehicles of Cultural Agency for People of Color in Antebellum America and Colonial Lagos
This project traces the deployment of visual and performing arts by peoples of color in antebellum America and colonial Lagos, Nigeria, to negotiate the relations of power instituted by dominant Euro-American groups. It specifically examines how they used innovative techniques and exploited ambivalent spaces within the hierarchical and racial frameworks that relegated them to subjugated socio-cultural positions. Although photographs and performances may be perceived as relatively straightforward forms of cultural expression, this joint project exposes their deeply textured displays and multivalent meanings conveyed by symbolic representations introduced into these formats by people of color to express their cultural identity and agency.
Charity and Poverty in Judaism, Christianity and Islam in the Early Modern Period
Tzedakah, Caritas and Zakat are three terms often lumped together under one word—charity, as they refer to how normative Judaism, Christianity and Islam have historically addressed the needs of the more vulnerable members of their respective societies. Yet, behind these three terms stand very different histories and practices. On the one hand, there are parallels between the three terms. They all deal with the distribution of wealth, and the recognition that not all members of a given society have equal access to it. In each of the three traditions, these terms are closely related to their inheritance systems and family structures. Furthermore, as the three traditions have often been neighbors, they have influenced one another. On the other hand, there are also startling differences between the cultural meanings of these terms, as the three traditions have different attitudes to not only poverty but also wealth. There is also the question of disparity in political power and whether or not the society under study is the host culture or one of its minorities. This research project will include studies of charitable institutions--in Jewish, Christian or Islamic societies--that will illustrate both the interconnectedness of the poor and the wealthy, and the interplay between dominant and minority cultures and faiths.
Access to the Healthcare System and Successful Aging among Immigrants after Midlife
The health care delivery system of our country has faced many challenges over decades, and researchers have studied health disparity among different racial groups in order to address and redress inequality that challenges health care providers and policy makers. An increasing number of immigrants, who bring in various cultural backgrounds and expectations, creates further challenges in improving the system. When people from different cultures meet, who decides what is right or wrong, what is appropriate or inappropriate, and what is ethical or unethical? While this question permeates many areas in our lives, the area of healthcare system is one of the crucial aspects of human survival in our society. One out of five people in the U.S. are immigrants or their offspring, and the proportion is estimated to increase further. Our community-based research projects explore several issues, including access to healthcare system, successful again, caregiving arrangements, and end-of-life care. The immigrant groups selected for the projects (Bosnians, Chinese, Koreans, Latinos, and South Asians) present different backgrounds in terms of entry to and length in the U.S., race and religion, and size and structure of the communities. Issues related to access to healthcare system and successful aging will be illuminated in the context of acculturation, perceived discrimination, distrust in healthcare system, psychological well-being, and social support.
The Impact of Race and Religion on the Refugee Resettlement Process in American Society
The study will compare and contrast resettlement processes of two distinct refugee groups: refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina and those from Somalia. Although the population size of Bosnians and Somalis in St. Louis is different, these two groups present culturally intriguing similarities and differences in their racial and religious backgrounds. Bosnians’ religious background as secular Muslims and their racial background as Europeans seem to have contributed to their acceptance by the mainstream society, rendering Bosnians racially ‘invisible’ in the American society which continues to appreciate whiteness. Somali refugees on the other hand come from a country that exists only in name. Years of extreme violence and famine have taken a toll on their psyche. An understanding of the level of stress or conflict experienced by Somali refugees in their home country would be important in their resettlement process. The project will build upon Matsuo’s earlier work on Bosnian refugees in St. Louis. The study will use a grounded-theory method in order to explore the impact of race and religion on Somali refugees’ resettlement process. The authors will conduct in-depth interviews with approximately twenty Somali refugees, recruiting them with a snowball sampling. The data to be collected will be transcribed in English for data analyses, and the findings will be compared against Matsuo’s previous findings of studies on Bosnians.
Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Interculturality
The rapidly growing global traffic of information, people, and goods has created an urgent need for a deeper understanding of difference. Expanding our knowledge about the mechanisms of interactions between distinct cultures has become one of the most important academic challenges of our time. It is an effort that requires a high degree of epistemological self-awareness on the part of the scholar, as well as a conscious attempt to overcome the tendency to universalize and objectify one's own cultural meanings and imaginaries. Most analytical frameworks are currently tailored to the specialized needs of particular academic disciplines, leading to ever-increasing fragmentation and compartmentalization of knowledge. The goal of this team project is to provide innovative intellectual resources for studying and interpreting interculturality by developing theoretical frameworks--illustrated by case study applications of resultant methodologies--that mediate between disciplines and promote cross-fertilization among them.