Drugs & Behavior
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Archive Page Two
1.The drug that revolutionized (i.e. the most important
to) the treatment of mental illness in the U.S. in the mid 1950s was:
e. two of the above
2.Briefly explain the difference between a competitive antagonist and a non-competitive antagonist.
3.Why can it be said that ALL inverse agonists are antagonists, but NOT ALL antagonists can be called inverse agonists?
4.Explain the meaning of threshold dose, maximal response
dose, and ED50 in terms of a "typical" dose-response
5.Drug administration via the oral route is usually the
safest route of drug administration. However, there are some
disadvantages associated with P.O. administration via the mouth?
a. this route cannot be used effectively during emergencies
b. drug absorption is usually low, comparatively
c. the first-pass effect is common using this route
d. administration via the mouth can upset and irritate the stomach
e. none of the above
6.Psychotropic drugs alter:
b. cognitive functioning
d. both a and b
7.Which of the following is false regarding therapeutic
a. You want the dose of the ED50 to be quite low
b. You want the dose of the LD50 to be high
c. TR = ED50/LD50
d. TR indicates how safe a drug is
e. As TR decreases (< 1), safety decreases
8.Which of the following is false regarding synergism?
a. Synergism is a situation whereby two drugs together produce a greater effect than either drug produces alone.
b. Two kinds of synergism are addition and potentiation
c. Potentiation is where two drugs produce the same overt effect, and the effect of the two drugs taken together
is the sum of their individual effects
d. Both a and c
e. When determining addition vs. potentiation, the D-Rs and MED of the two drugs need to be established.
9.Drugs cross biological membranes by all of the following
a. passive diffusion
10.The following are disadvantages of IV administration except:
a. absorption more variable
b. clot formation
c. vessel irritation/collapse
d. both a and c
11.Which of the following used the technique of long periods
sleep with bromides to treat schizophrenics?
d. William James, the first American psychologist
12.Briefly explain "key and lock" analogy and how it applies to the receptor (e.g. antagonist, agonist).
13.What are the advantages and disadvantages of the I.V. route of administration of drugs?
14.What are the factors that influence a drug's absorption? Briefly explain 3 factors.
15.Which of the following is NOT one of the primary ions for
16.What are the forces that influence the concentrations of ions across neuronal membranes? Explain and give example(s).
17.The action potential is said to be an all-or-none response. What does this mean?
18.Each action potential has an absolute and relative refractory period. What is the difference between the two?
19.In relation to the drug experience, the set refers to:
a. the social and physical environment in which the drug is taken.
b. how frequently the drug is taken.
c. the psychological makeup and the expectations of the individual taking the drug.
d. the individual's unique biochemical makeup.
20.True or False: The criteria for what constitutes drug abuse are not at all related to one's culture and their time period.
1. Group of neuron cell bodies A. CEREBRAL CORTEX outside the CNS.
2. Conglomeration of structures B. MEDULLA
3. Portion of spinal cord through which sensory info travels C. LIMBIC SYSTEM
4. Thought to play a key role in formation of memory and cog arousal D. Hypothalamus
5. Controls automatic skeletal motor activities and coordinates balance E. CEREBELLUM
6. Controls reflex functions such as respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and vomiting. F. NUCLEI
7. Regulates the expression of fight, fright , feeding, and mating. G. GANGLIA
8. Is composed fo the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occiptial lobes H. VENTRAL ROOT
9. Group of neruon cell bodies inside the CNS. I. DORSAL ROOT
22.Ionizaton of a drug:
a. increases it's solubility.
b. decreases it's solubility.
c. neither increases nor decreases it's solubility.
d. may increase or decrease it's solubility depending on the surrounding conditions.
a. is the opposite of sensitization.
b. occurs in response to depleated drug administration.
c. results in greater amounts of drug being required to reinstate the initial effect.
d. two of the above.
e. all of the above.
24.List the metabolic pathway for the manufacture of catecholamine
NT's, begining with the amino acid and including all
25.For what NT does LSD serve as an agonist?
26.Which is a characteristic feature of tolerance?
a. Occurs in response to repeated drug adminstration.
b. Loss of effect relative to initial impact.
c. Results in greater amounts of drug being required to reinstate that initial effect.
d. All of the above.
27.Which of the following can be considered the opposite of drug
b. Instrumental conditioning
28.List the three major forms of drug classification and briefly explain their interrelationships.
29.WHICH IS AN EXAMPLE OF STATE DEPENDENT LEARNING?
a. TYING A STRING AROUND YOUR PINKY TO REMEMBER HOMEWORK.
b. WRITING DOWN SHORT HAND NOTES.
c. GETTING DRUNK AT A PARTY AND GETTING A PHONE NUMBER AND CALLING IT THE
NEXT DAY WHEN YOU ARE SOBER.
d. GETTING A PHONE NUMBER AT A PARTY AND FORGETTING IT THE NEXT DAY, THEN
REMEMBERING IT THE NEXT TIME YOU WERE DRUNK.
30.WHAT DID THE HUMPHREY-DURHAM ACT REQUIRE FOR DRUG DISTRIBUTION?
31.EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DRUG TOLERANCE BEING PHARACODYNAMIC
32.LIST THE THREE CHARATERISTICS OF TOLERANCE FEATURES.
33.IN THE PARASYMPATHETIC, THE GLANGLIA ARE:
a. CLOSER TO THE TARGET ORGAN.
b. CLOSER TO THE SPINAL CORD.
c. THE SAME DISTANCE BETWEEN THE SPINAL CORD AND THE TARGET ORGAN.
d. NONE OF THE ABOVE.
34.Which of the following is not a part of a motor neuron?
d. glial cell
e. terminal button
35.With regards to a motor neuron "firing,"ion channels exist
for all of the followin except:
36.Which of the following is a ligand?
37.An antagonist does which of the following?
a. appears to act through the same receptor as an agonist, but produces effects opposite of those of the agonist
b. has affinity for and capability of activating receptor
c. always decreases bloodflow to the organ which it is affecting
d. always increases bloodflow to the organ which it is affecting
e. blocks action of agonists
38.Schedule II of the schedule-controlled drugs contains:
b. some currently accepted medical use drugs which also have high abuse potential
c. no currently U.S. accepted medical use drugs which also have high abuse potential
e. no currently accepted medical use drugs which also have no abuse potential
39.. What is the difference between a drug and a ligand?
40.Implications for drug entry across the BBB include
a. drug molecule has to be very small
b. lipid soluble
c. active transport
e. all of the above
41.Name the three drug passages.
42.What is the critical level of a nerve impulse?
d. none of the above
43.What is tachyphylaxis?
44.True or False. It is possible to be dependent on a drug without ever abusing the drug.
45.Which process(es) are involved in context-specific tolerance?
B. Pavlovian conditioning
C. instrumental conditioning
D. only A. and C.
E. all of the above
46.Which route of drug administration involves first pass metabolism?
47.True or False. A drug's therapeutic index is often specified in terms of the drug's LD50 relative to the drug's ED50.
48.If a drug has a plasma half-life of 4 hours, and 20 milligrams
of the drug are administered, how many milligrams of the
drug will be present after 8 hours?