Form the Future-Tense (Active): Conjugations 3, 3-io and 4

With Hints for Mastery

(Cf. Wheelock 8, 10)

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Form the future indicative active for third, third-io and fourth conjugations in just two steps.


STEP 1: Get the base by removing the -ERE or -ÎRE of the infinitive (the second principal part of the verb), adding an -i- for the third-io and fourth conjugations.



Principal Parts:



dûcô, dûcere, dûxî, dûctum



capiô, capere, cêpî, captum



audiô, audîre, audîvî, audîtum



STEP 2: Add -am, -ês, -et, -êmus, -êtis, -ent.



dûcam, dûcês, dûcet, dûcêmus, dûcêtis, dûcent


capiam, capiês, capiet, capiêmus, capiêtis, capient


audiam, audiês, audiet, audiêmus, audiêtis, audient


Compare first and second conjugation futures.


The six personal endings retain their meanings:

dûcam = I will lead

dûcêmus = we will lead

dûcês = you will lead

dûcêtis = you (pl) will lead

dûcet = he / she / it will lead

dûcent = they will lead



You will be able to derive the following future forms:

agam, agês, aget, agêmus, agêtis, agent

geram, gerês, geret, gerêmus, gerêtis, gerent

scrîbam, scrîbês, scrîbet, scrîbêmus, scrîbêtis, scrîbent

traham, trahês, trahet, trahêmus, trahêtis, trahent

discam, discês, discet, discêmus, discêtis, discent

vincam, vincês, vincet, vincêmus, vincêtis, vincent

faciam, faciês, faciet, faciêmus, faciêtis, facient

fugiam, fugiês, fugiet, fugiêmus, fugiêtis, fugient

veniam, veniês, veniet, veniêmus, veniêtis, venient

inveniam, inveniês, inveniet, inveniêmus, inveniêtis, invenient


Compare first and second conjugation futures.




Hints for mastery:

Learn to say or to think the whole sequence of each of the two sets of personal endings rapidly. You merely have to choose one set for verbs from the first two conjugations, and the other for the remaining ones. The regular future indicative active endings will always involve either

-bô, -bis, -bit, -bimus, -bitis, -bunt


-am, -ês, -et, -êmus, -êtis, -ent

As you learn verbs, have a sense for whether they go with the "1-2 group" or the "3-4 group". (The latter group also includes the third-io verbs of course, but saying the "3-4 group" is simply an easy way to name the second set.)  You could also simply use "first group" or "second group".

Think out the future forms for each new verb you learn. This will help you to place the verb in the right "conceptual box": the "1-2 group" or the "3-4 group".

Get into the habit of looking for the CLUES — especially the letters that are found right before the personal endings.



The clues for the future tense of the third, third-io, and fourth conjugations are:


at the end of the word


-Ê- or -E-

immediately preceding the personal ending.





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Latin Teaching Materials at Saint Louis University: © Claude Pavur 1997 - 2009.  This material is being made freely available for non-commercial educational use.