149. THE MONARCHY.
xi Kal. Mai. Rome founded.
Creation of Senate and Equites.
Destruction of Alba Longa.
Ostia taken from the Etruscans.
Tarquinius Priscus. Treaty with the Latins. Increase of Senate and Equites.
Date assigned to foundation of Massilia.
Earliest coins of the Italian Greeks.
Settlement at Lipara of Rhodians and Cnidians driven out from Lilybaeum.
Seruius Tullius. Murus and Agger constructed. Centurial organisation and local tribes (Sucusana or Suburana, Palatina, Esquilina, Collina) created. Between this time and 493 sixteen others came into existence.
Earliest Etruscan coinage, after Greek patterns.
Naval battle between the Phocaean settlers at Alalia in Corsica and a fleet of Etruscan and Carthaginian vessels. The Etruscans occupy Corsica.
Defeat of Etruscans and barbarians at Cumae by Aristodemus.
Destruction of Sybaris.
The Tarquins ejected.
150. FROM THE FOUNDATION OF THE REPUBLIC TO THE DECEMVIRATE.
Kal. Ian. The first consuls. Lex Valeria Horatia de prouocatione. The first treaty with Carthage, according to Polybius. Dedication of the temple of Iuppiter on the Capitol.
War with Porsena.
Migration of the Claudii to Rome.
The first dictator and magister equitum.
The Carthaginians conquer Sardinia about this time.
Battle of Lake Regillus. Temple of Saturnus in the forum.
Temple of Mercurius by the Circus Maximus.
First Secession and creation of the Tribunate of the plebs. Foundation of Latin colonies at Velitrae and Suessa Pometia (among the Volsci). Creation of the twenty-first local tribe (Clustumina).
Treaty of Sp. Cassius with the Latins. Temple of Ceres, Liber and Libera by the Circus Maximus.
Lex Icilia as to the rights of Tribunes. Foundation of Latin colonies at Norba and Sigma.
Treaty with the Hernici. Agrarian law of Sp. Cassius.
Condemnation of Sp. Cassius.
Temple of Castor in forum.
The Fabii at the Cremera.
Truce with Veii. Defeat of the Etruscans by Hiero at Cumae.
Lex Publilia Voleronis.
Antium taken from the Volsci and (Liv. ii 63) a Roman colony established there.
Temple of Deus Fidius.
Agitation begun by C. Terentilius Arsa, a tribune, to appoint a commission of five to draw up laws limiting the consular imperium.
Capture of the Capitol by the Sabine Appius Herdonius.
The number of plebeian tribunes raised to ten.
Lex Icilia de Auentino publicando.
Triumph of the agitation of Arsa. Mission of inquiry to Athens. Lex Aternia Tarpeia de multis.
A Syracusan force lays waste the Etruscan and Corsican coasts and occupies Aethalia (Elba).
Decemuiri legibus scribendis (all patricians) supersede all the magistrates and publish ten tabulae of laws, accepted by the comitia centuriata.
Second body of Decemuiri (partly plebeian), who decline to abdicate at the end of the year. They publish two additional tabulae.
Trial of Verginia. Second Secession. Abdication and exile of the Decemuirs. Renewal of the magistracies. Leges Valeriae Horatiae. Lex Icilia (indemnity for Secession).
151. FROM THE FALL OF THE DECEMVIRS TO THE CAPTURE OF VEII.
Lex Trebonia (to stop co-optation of tribunes).
Appointment of two quaestors by comitia tributa. Great defeat of the Tarentines by the Iapyges.
Arbitration by Rome between Aricia and Ardea.
Lex Canuleia. Institution of the tribuni militares consulari potestate to take the place of consuls in such years as the Senate might determine. Plebeians eligible.
Censorship created, open to patricians only. Latin colony founded at Ardea.
Allotment of land at Ardea (assignatio uiritana).
Sp. Maelius condemned.
War with Fidenae. Spolia opima of A. Cornelius Cossus.
Lex Aemilia, restricting censors (elected every five years) to a tenure of a year and a half.
First law to check malpractice at elections.
First temple of Apollo.
Lex Iulia Papiria de multarum aestimatione.
Capua taken from the Etruscans by the Samnites.
Quaestorships increased to four and opened to plebeians.
Cumae captured by Samnites.
Allotment of land at Labici.
Three Etruscan ships aid the Athenians at Syracuse.
The Carthaginians in Sicily.
The first plebeian quaestor.
War with Veii. The equites equo priuato introduced. Pay first given to the troops.
Camillus as censor imposes a tax on bachelors (aes uxorium).
The earliest tribuni militares consulati potestate who were plebeians.
Embassy to Delphi.
The Etruscans attacked by Gauls.
Veii captured. Temple of Mater Matuta.
152. FROM THE CAPTURE OF VEII TO THE LATIN WAR.
Treaty with Massilia.
Triumph of Camillus. Gifts sent to Delphi.
Allotment of land at Veii. Latin colony founded at Circen.
Temple of Iuno Regina on the Aventine.
Camillus exiled. Clusium asks for aid against the Gauls.
Battle at the Allia. Camillus recalled. His victory over the Gauls known to Aristotle (Plut. Cam. 22).
Temple of Mars extra portam Capenam.
389 (or 387)
Four new local tribes created in southern Etruria (Stellatina, Tromentina, Sabatina, Amensis). The tribes now number 25.
Dionysius of Syracuse founds settlements on both sides of the Adriatic (including Ancona and Hatria).
Dionysius plunders the Etruscan port of Pyrgi. Latin colony founded at Satricum.
M. Manlius condemned. New Latin towns no longer admitted to the League.
Foundation of the Latin colony at Sutrium in Etruria.
382 (or 372)
Latin colony founded at Setia.
Capture of Tusculum, which receives the ciuitas.
Antium and Tarracina become Latin colonies about this time.
The tribunes C. Licinius Stolo and L. Sextius begin their agitation.
No ordinary magistrates elected.
Temple of Iuno Lucina in the Esquiliae.
Foundation of the Latin colony at Nepete in Etruria.
The first plebeian magister equitum. Law to admit plebeians to the college of keepers of the Sibylline books, and to increase the number to ten. The laws of Licinius and Sextius passed.
First plebeian consul, L. Sextius. Creation of the praetorship (open to patricians only) and of two curule aedileships, to be filled in alternate years by patricians and plebeians. The Gauls at Alba. Temple of Concordia in the forum.
Death of Camillus.
The first ludi scenici.
The tribuni militum, formerly all nominated by consuls, now in part elected by the comitia tributa. M. Curtius leaps into the lake.
The Gauls (aided by Latins) three miles from Rome.
Fight with Gauls close to Rome.
Two new local tribes (Pomptina and Publilia) created in Southern Latium, bringing the number up to 27. Renewed treaty with the Latins. The Gauls defeated. Lex Poetelia de ambitu.
Lex de uicesima manumissionum passed in castris tributim by the consul Cn. Manlius. Law regulating interest.
The first plebeian dictator, C. Marcius Rutilus, is refused a triumph.
In several of these years both consuls were patricians.
Alliance with the Samnites.
353 (or 351)
The first ciuitas sine suffragio (Caere). The Lex Quinia (possibly about this time).
Severe financial crisis.
The first plebeian Censor.
The Gauls on the Alban mount.
Victory over Gauls and Latins. Raids by Greek vessels on the Italian coast.
Treaty with Carthage (called the earliest by Diodorus).
Renewed financial stress.
Occupation of Sora on the Liris.
Temple of Iuno Moneta on the Capitol.
First Samnite war, in support of the Campanians.
Military mutiny. Plebiscita to abolish interest, to forbid the holding of the same magistracy twice within ten years, and of two magistracies in the same year, and to require that one consul should be plebeian, the other place also being open to plebeians.
Treaty with the Samnites.
153. LATIN AND SAMNITE WARS.
War with Latins. Victories ad Veserim, and at Trifanum.
Leges Publiliae Philonis.
Dissolution of the Latin League. Many Latins and Campanians become ciues sine suffragio. Antium becomes a Roman citizen colony. The rostra from Antium used to decorate speakers' platform. Archidamos the Spartan suffers defeat at the hands of the Lucani, on the day on which the battle of Chaeronea took place.
The first plebeian praetor.
The Ausones defeated; Cales captured, and Latin colony founded there.
A rising of slaves.
Friendship with Alexander of Molossus, who is killed in this year at Pandosia. Two new local tribes (Maecia and Scaptia) created. The whole number is now 29.
Capture of Priuemum. Tarracina becomes a Roman citizen colony.
Latin colony founded at Fregellae.
Second Samnite war, in which other Italian peoples join. League of Rome with the Lucanians.
First instance of prorogatio imperii. Siege of Neapolis by the Romans.
Lex Poetelia de nexis, diminishing the rigour of the law of debt (or in 313). Treaty with Neapolis.
The people of Croton, with the aid of Syracuse, defeat the Bruttii.
Overtures for peace, made by the Samnites, declined by Rome.
The defeat at the Furculae Caudinae.
Luceria and Fregellae captured by the Samnites. The Tarentines attempt to arbitrate between the Romans and Samnites.
Luceria retaken by the Romans.
Surrender of the Apuli and some other peoples. The praefecti Capuam Cumas now first appointed. Two new local tribes created in the northern Campanian territory (Oufentina and Falerna). These are the thirtieth and thirty-first.
Nuceria, Nola and Sora join the Samnites.
War against Aurunci. Latin colony founded at Luceria. Sora and Nola recovered. End of a war between Syracuse and Carthage.
Latin colonies founded at Suessa Aurunca, and on the island of Pontiae, and at Saticula (in Samnium). Fregellae recaptured.
Censorship of Ap. Claudius Caecus. All the military tribunes of the first four legions now elected. Duouiri nauales first created. Construction of the uia Appia to Capua, and of the aqua Claudia.
War with the Etruscans.
The Romans pass the silua Ciminia for the first time. Victory at lake Vadimo. Some Etruscan cities make peace. First recorded naval expedition of the Romans. Agathocles of Syracuse receives the support of Etruscan ships against the Carthaginians.
War with the Umbrians, and their surrender. Peace with the remaining cities of Etruria.
Expedition of a Roman squadron to Corsica. First prorogatio imperii by Senate.
Peace with the Hernici (most of whom become ciues sine suffragio). New treaty with Carthage. Arrangement with Rhodes; and a little later with Apollonia.
Submission of the Aequi. Peace with the Samnites and Marrucini, Marsi, Paeligni, Frentani. Censorship of Q. Fabius Rullianus, who (undoing the work of Appius Claudius) restricts the landless citizens to the four city tribes.
Latin colony founded at Alba Fucensis. Alliance with Tarentum.
Expedition of Cleonymus the Spartan to Italy. He is defeated by the Sallentini with help from Rome.
Painting of the temple of Salus on the Capitol by Gaius Fabius.
War with the Marsi and Etruscans. Peace with the Vestini.
War with the Aequi. Lex Valeria de prouocatione (rendering the dictator subject to the prouocatio). Lex Ogulnia, increasing the numbers of the augurs and pontifices and admitting plebeians to these colleges. The thirty-second and thirty-third local tribes (Aniensis and Teretina) are created, on the upper waters of the Anio and Liris. The first tonsor comes from Sicily to Ardea.
Latin colony founded at Narnia. Occupation of Corcyra by Agathocles; the island ceded to Pyrrhus four years later.
Third Samnite war, in which Etruscans, Apuli, Umbrians, Gauls ultimately join. Latin colony founded at Carseoli.
New treaty with the Lucani. Capture of Bouianum. Successes in Samnium recorded in the oldest of the Scipionum elogia.
Institution of the worship of Pudicitia Plebeia. Minturnae and Sinuessa become Roman citizen colonies. The statue of the she-wolf and the twins set up on the Capitol. Temple of Bellona near the circus Flaminius.
Self-devotion of Decius, and victory over the Samnites and their allies at Sentinum. Temple of Iuppiter Victor. Temple of Venus by the Circus Maximus.