193. FROM THE MURDER OF JOVIAN TO THE DEATH OF THEODOSIUS.
Jovian murdered (16 Feb.). Valentinian and his brother Valens become Augusti.
Procopius proclaimed emperor at Constantinople, but killed next year.
Valentinian names his son Gratianus (Gratian) as Augustus. Sanguinary conflicts between Damasus and Ursinus, claimants to the papacy. Severe struggles with Germans and other barbarians in this and the following ten years. The Breuiarium of Eutropius.
Death of Valentinian. His young son Valentinian II becomes Augustus.
The death of Valens. Close of the History of Ammianus Marcellinus. Theodosius given a command on the Danube. Edict of Gratian in favour of religious freedom, with few exceptions.
Theodosius made an Augustus. Ausonius Consul.
Dramatic date of the Saturnalia of Macrobius. Jerome translates and continues (from 326 to 378) the chronicle of Eusebius.
Goths admitted by Theodosius into the Danube legions.
Removal of the altar of Victory from the Roman Senate-house by Gratian.
Arcadius, son of Theodosius, made an Augustus. A pretender, Maximus, secures Britain, Gaul and Spain and is recognised by Theodosius. Gratian dies.
The Relationes of Symmachus, prefect of Rome.
Ambrose, De officiis ministrorum.
Maximus in Italy. Flight of Valentinian II.
Maximus defeated and killed by Theodosius. Valentinian II again emperor of the West.
Triumphal entry of Theodosius into Rome, with his son Honorius, and Valentinian.
Great massacre perpetrated by Theodosius at Thessalonica. He submits to Ambrose and does penance.
Paganism forbidden. Temple of Serapis at Alexandria destroyed.
Valentinian murdered. Eugenius (a grammaticus) promoted to be an Augustus by Arbogast, the barbarian commander. Victory of Stilicho over Goths, Alans and Huns. Jerome's De uiris illustribus.
Theodosius crushes Eugenius, and visits Rome. Honorius declared emperor of the West, with Stilicho as general.
194. FROM THE DEATH OF THEODOSIUS TO THE DEATH OF ATTILA.
Death of Theodosius (17 Jan.). Arcadius emperor of the East. Fall and death of Rufinus, the great minister of Theodosius. Goths under Alaric in Greece.
Alaric defeated in Greece by Stilicho.
Gildo, tyrant in Africa for twelve years, crushed and killed by Stilicho, whose daughter marries Honorius.
Fall of Eutropius, minister of Arcadius.
Alaric in Italy.
Alaric defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia and again near Verona.
Close of the Chronicle of Sulpicius Severus.
Honorius transfers his court to Ravenna.
Radagaisus invades Italy; his army destroyed by Alaric.
Ravages of barbarians in Gaul. Revolt of Britain under the pretender Constantine, who receives support in Gaul and Spain.
Disgrace and death of Stilicho (23 Aug.). Alaric besieges Rome but accepts ransom. Death of Arcadius. Accession of the younger Theodosius in the East.
Death of Claudian.
Second siege of Rome. Goths and Romans join in raising Attalus, Prefect of the City, to the throne. The Vandals and other Germans invade Spain. Revolt of Britain against Constantine.
Honorius degraded by Alaric. Capture and sack of Rome by Goths. Death of Alaric.
Death of Prudentius.
Constantine killed. Britain and Gaul in revolt for many years.
Defeat of Heraclian, count of Africa.
Atulf, the Visigothic king, marries the sister of Honorius, but dies next year.
Itinerary of Rutilius Namatianus.
Orosius' History of the world ends with this year.
Theodoric king of the Visigoths in Gaul.
Franks on the lower Rhine under Merovingian kings.
Valentinian III emperor of the West.
Completion of Augustine's De ciuitate Dei.
Vandals in Africa.
Attila king of the Huns. Aetius minister of the Western Empire.
Saluianus writes his De gubernatione Dei between these dates.
Carthage captured by Vandals. The work of Martianus Capella on the Seven Arts was written before this event.
Huns ravage the Eastern Empire.
Peace between Attila and the Eastern Empire.
Attila invades Gaul. Theodoric and Aetius defeat him near Chalons. Theodoric killed in the battle.
Attila ravages Italy, but makes peace.
Death of Attila.
195. FROM THE DEATH OF ATTILA TO THE DEATH OF JUSTINIAN.
Theodoric II king of the Visigoths.
Murder of Aetius.
Sack of Rome by Vandals. Death of Valentinian III. Auitus places in the library of Trajan a statue of his son-in-law Sidonius Apollinaris.
Dominance of Ricimer in Italy begins.
Sack of Rome by Ricimer and his death.
Augustulus, last emperor of the West.
Euric king of the Visigoths.
Odovacar king in Italy.
Clovis king of the Franks. His conversion (496).
Theodoric the Ostrogoth invades Italy and defeats Odovacar at Verona.
Theodoric king of Italy after the assassination of Odovacar (493).
Boethius writes the Philosophiae Consolatio shortly before his death.
Priscian's great work on Grammar is transcribed at Constantinople by one of his pupils, the calligrapher Theodorus.
Reign of Justinian.
Code of Justinian.
The monastery of Monte Cassino founded by Benedict of Nursia.
Digest of Justinian.
Belisarius, general of Justinian, overthrows the Vandals in Africa and annexes it (534)
Belisarius occupies Rome (10 Dec.).
Goths besiege Rome. Successes of Belisarius in Italy.
Frankish invasion of Italy. Belisarius overthrows the Gothic kingdom in Italy.
Cassiodorus, the historian of the Goths (533) and the Secretary of the Ostrogothic dynasty, retires from public life and founds a monastery in the south of Italy.
Belisarius commands against Persia.
Belisarius again in Italy, owing to the successes of Totila, the Gothic king.
Totila captures Rome; he is driven out in Feb. of the next year by Belisarius, returns and is again defeated; but makes progress in Italy.
Belisarius recalled; the Goths retake Rome (549).
Expedition of Narses to Italy. Death of Totila. Narses takes Rome.
Narses defeats the invading Franks and Alamanni. Exarchs established at Ravenna.
Last victory of Belisarius; he delivers Constantinople from the Huns.
Death of Belisarius.
Death of Justinian.