154. FROM THE END OF THE SAMNITE WARS TO THE FIRST PUNIC WAR.
Surrender of chief Etruscan towns. Temple of Victoria and of Iuppiter Stator on the Palatine.
Temples of Quirinus and Fors Fortuna. Colossal Iuppiter set up in Capitol.
Insurrection at Falerii.
Latin colony founded at Venusia. Temple of Aesculapius on the insula Tiberina.
Treaty with Samnites. Surrender of Sabines, who had revolted. They.become ciues sine suffragio.
Tresuiri capitales (or nocturni) first appointed. Latin colony founded at Hatria. Death of Agathocles.
Fourth and last Secessio. Lex Hortensia. Severe financial stress.
Lex Maenia. About this time some of the ciuitates sine suffragio, including Tusculum, receive the full Roman franchise.
Thurii attacked by the Lucanians. War with Etruscans, Umbrians and Gauls.
War with the Senones (Polybius), ending in their complete destruction. Sena Gallica (in Umbria) and Castrum Nouum (in Picenum) established as Roman citizen colonies. Defeat of Etruscans.
War with Boii, ended by a treaty. Risings in Samnium, Lucania and Bruttium. Occupation of Thurii, Regium, Croton, Locri. The Tarentines attack a Roman fleet.
War with Tarentum and Pyrrhus, in which: some Italian peoples of the south take part. Etruscans again defeated.
Battle of Heraclea. For the first time, a plebeian censor conducts the lustrum.
Syracuse joins Pyrrhus. Battle of Asculum. New treaty with Carthage.
Treaty with Heraclea and departure of Pyrrhus for Sicily. Victories over his allies. Temple of Summanus.
Return of Pyrrhus, after victories in Sicily.
Hiero supreme at Syracuse. Battle of Beneuentum and departure of Pyrrhus to Epirus. Censors eject from the Senate an ex-consul, for the possession of silver plate.
Embassy from Ptolemy Philadelphus. Latin colonies founded at Cosa (in Campania or in Etruria?) and at Paestum.
Surrender of Tarentines and other enemies in S. Italy. The poet Liuius Andronicus brought as prisoner from Tarentum to Rome. Death of Pyrrhus in Greece. Temple of Consus on the Aventine.
Capture of Regium from Campanians, who had deserted from the Roman army.
War with Umbrians, Picentes, Sallentini, ending with their surrender. Capture of Brundisium. Rome supreme in Italy.
Latin colonies founded at Ariminum and at Beneuentum, with somewhat diminished rights. The ius Arimini is applied to all subsequent, Latin colonies, down to the foundation of the last in 181. Centralisation of silver coinage at Rome. Institution of tresuiri monetales. First recorded divorce. Temple of Tellus. Enfranchisement of Sabines.
Four quaestores classici appointed; one stationed at Ostia, another at Cales, a third at Ariminum. Temple of Pales.
Treaty, with the Mamertini of Messana.
155. FIRST PUNIC WAR.
Volsinii (which had fallen into the hands of the lowest class) captured. The First Punic war begins with the capture of Messana, which had been occupied by Italian mercenaries of Agathocles (Mamertini) and surrendered by them to the Carthaginians. The first exhibition of gladiators at Rome (introduced from Etruria). Latin colony founded at Firmum (in Picenum). Temple of Vortumnus on the Aventine.
Hiero of Syracuse joins the Romans, who win over several Sicilian cities. Latin colony founded at Aesemia (in Samnium). The first sundial at Rome.
Agrigentum captured. Timaios completes his history.
Naval victory of C. Duilius at Mylae. First naval triumph, celebrated by the columna rostrata. Temple of Ianus near the site of the theatre of Marcellus.
Roman successes in Corsica and Sardinia. Temple of the Tempestates by the Porta Capena.
Temple of Spes in foro holitorio.
Expedition of Regulus to Africa. Naval victory at Ecnomus.
Defeat of Regulus by the Carthaginians, under Xanthippus. Destruction of Roman fleet by storm at Pachynus.
Capture of Panormus. Temple of Fides in the Capitol.
Another Roman fleet destroyed by storm.
The first plebeian pontifex maximus (Tib. Coruncanius). Capture of Himera and Lipara. Refusal of the equites to work with the gregarii milites at the trenches.
Great victory at Panormus (on land).
The fleet under P. Claudius defeated at Drepilna after his contemptuous treatment of the sacred chickens. A large fleet of Roman transports destroyed by storm. The first recorded ludi saeculares.
Hamilcar Barca in Sicily.
Birth of Hannibal. Roman citizen colonies founded at Aesium in Umbria and Alsium in Etruria.
Roman citizen colony founded at Fregenae in Etruria.
Hamilcar at Eryx. Latin colony established at Brundisium.
Great naval victory of Lutatius Catulus at the insulae Aegites. The Carthaginians sue for peace. The office of praetor peregrinus created.
Peace with Carthage. The ceded parts of Sicily constitute the first Roman province. Rebellion of the Falisci. Two new tribes created (Velina and Quirina), completing the full number of thirty-five. Conjectured date of the changed order of voting in the comitia centuriata. Latin colony founded at Spoletium. Temple of Iuno Curitis.