156. FROM THE END OF THE FIRST TO THE BEGINNING OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR.
First play of Liuius Andronicus. War of Carthaginian mercenaries begins.
Birth of Ennius. The Romans take over Corsica and (in 238) Sardinia at the invitation of the mutineers against Carthage.
War with Gauls of northern Italy and with the Ligurians. Temple of Flora.
Hamilcar crosses to Spain and makes conquests there.
First dramas of Naeuius performed.
Birth of Cato the Censor.
Temple of Honos before the Porta Capena.
Law of C. Flaminius to divide the ager Gallicus and Picenus.
The Corsi, with whom and the Sardinians the Romans had been contending for seven years, make a surrender. First recorded triumph of a Roman general on the mons Albanus. Export of silver to the Celtic lands forbidden.
War against the Illyrian pirates.
Hasdrubal succeeds Hamilcar in Spain. The uictoriatus first coined about this time.
Peace in Illyria. Roman garrisons in Corcyra, Apollonia and a few other places. Roman envoys received with distinction in Greece. Supposed date of compact between Rome and Hasdrubal, binding the Romans not to cross the river Iberus in war ('epi polemw' in Polybius).
The number of praetors raised to four, two of whom are allotted to govern the two provinces, the Roman portion of Sicily and Sardinia with Corsica.
Great combination of Gauls of N. Italy with Transalpine allies, against Rome.
Great defeat of Gauls near Pisae (battle of Telamon).
Surrender of the Boii.
An army under C. Flaminius and his colleagues crosses the Po for the first time and defeats the Insubres.
The consul M. Claudius Marcellus wins the spolia opima in fight with the Insubres, who surrender. From this year to 153, Id. Mart. is the day for magistrates (excepting tribunes and quaestors) to enter on office.
Hasdrubal assassinated; Hannibal succeeds. Roman victory over the Histri.
Censorship of C. Flaminius. Construction of the uia Flaminia to Ariminum, and of the circus Flaminius. Philip .V becomes king of Macedon.
Second Illyrian war. Condemnation of one consul, M. Liuius Salinator, for malversation; the other, L, Aemilius Paulus, just escapes. Capture of Saguntum by Hannibal. Lex Claudia passed (restraining Senators and their sons from maritime trade). The first Greek physician (Archagathos) in Rome.
157. SECOND PUNIC WAR
Latin colonies founded at Placentia and Cremona. Hannibal's march to Italy. The consul P. Cornelius Scipio misses Hannibal at the Rhone; sends his forces to Spain, returns to Italy and is defeated at the Ticinus by the Carthaginians. His colleague Ti. Sempronius Longus joins him and both are defeated at the Trebia.
C. Flaminius defeated at the locus Trasumennus. For the first time a dictator (or rather pro-dictator) viz. Q. Fabius Maximus is elected by the comitia and also his magister equitum M. Minucius Rufus, The latter has, afterwards equal authority with Fabius, bestowed on him by the comitia. Successful, operations of the two Scipiones in Spain. The as reduced to two unciae
The consuls C. Terentius Varro and L. Aemilius Paulus defeated at Cannae. Many Italian peoples join Hannibal. Q. Fabius Pictor the annalist is Roman envoy to Delphi. Death of Hiero. Hannibal seizes Capua and winters there. Temple of Concordia on the Capitol. First recorded instance of the summoning of the Senate by a tribune.
Treaty between Hannibal and Philip of Macedon. Success of Marcellus at Nola. Sumptuary law of C. Oppius. Temple of Mars and of Venus Erucina on the Capitol.
Casilinum captured by the Romans. Siege of Syracuse by Marcellus begins. Naval operations against Philip. Successes of the Scipiones in Spain. Possible date of the plebiscitum Atinium.
Hannibal captures Tarentum, and the Romans storm Syracuse. Marcellus defeats Carthaginians at Agrigentum. Defeat and death, of the Scipio brothers in Spain.
Surrender of Capua to the Romans. The Campani lose their ciuitas sine suffragio. Alliance with the Aetoli. The comitia bestow on P. Cornelius Scipio (aged 24) the command in Spain, with proconsular imperium. This is the first attested example of this privilege being conferred on a priuatus.
Agrigentum taken; the Carthaginians evacuate Sicily. Marcellus holds his own against Hannibal in Lucania. Scipio captures Noua Carthago. L. Cincius Alimentus the annalist is praetor in Sicily.
Hasdrubal, son of Hamilcar, defeated at Baecula. Chequered fortunes of Hannibal in Apulia. Q. Fabius (Cunctator) recaptures Tarentum. Twelve of the thirty Latin colonies declare themselves unable to meet the demands of the Roman government. First plebeian curio maximus.
Marcellus and his colleague are entrapped by Hannibal and killed. The ludi Apollinares, instituted in 212, are made annual.
Hasdrubal defeated at the Metaurus by the consuls C. Claudius Nero and M. Liuius Salinator. Continued successes in Spain and Greece. Liuius Andronicus writes a hymn of praise for victory. Establishment of the schola poetarum in the temple of Minerva on the Aventine.
Surrender of the Lucani. Alliance with Gades in Spain. Scipio's return to Rome.
Scipio made consul, and given permission to go to Africa, captures Locri on the way. Mago, Hannibal's brother, occupies Genua. The Aetoli make peace with Philip, and the Romans also afterwards. Temple of Honos and Virtus before the Porta Capena.
Scipio, in Africa, with M. Cato as quaestor. Lex Cincia de donis et muneribus. Establishment of the cult of the Magna Mater.
Hannibal recalled to Africa. Mago defeated and killed in Gaul. Successes of Scipio.
Battle of Zama.
Peace and triumph of Scipio. War goes on in northern Italy, kept alive by a Carthaginian, Hamilcar. New alliance with, Aetoli, S. Aelius Paetus, author of the Ius Aelianum, is consul.