158. FROM THE END OF THE SECOND PUNIC TO THE END OF THE SYRIAN WAR.
Second Macedonian war. Insurrection of Gauls. The Stichus of Plautus performed.
Romans defeated by the Insubres.
Flamininus drives Philip into Thessaly. Alliance with the Achaean league. Peace with Insubres. Slave rising in Latium.
Victory of Cynoscephalae. Conjectural date of first Lex Porcia. Praetorships raised to six.
Peace concluded with Philip. Flamininus proclaims the freedom of Greece at the Isthmian games. Peace with Cenomani. Serious slave insurrection.
Antiochus, called on to free the Greek cities under his rule, and to refrain from crossing into Europe, refuses. Operations against Nabis the Spartan despot. Lex Oppia repealed. Cato in Spain; he is the first nouus homo to obtain the consulship since 216. Flight of Hannibal from Carthage. Second Lex Porcia (possibly).
Second consulship of Scipio Africanus, who assigns separate seats to senators at ludi. Roman forces withdrawn from Greece. Roman citizen colonies founded at Puteoli, Volturnum, Liternum, Salernum, Buxentum, Sipontum, Tempsa and Croton, and possibly at Pyrgi (before 191). Temples of Veiouis and of Faunus in the insula Tiberina; and of Iuno Sospita in foro holitorio. Lex Aebutia restricting legis actiones (possibly). Probable date of death of Naeuius.
193, 192, 191
War continues against the Gauls and Ligurians.
Latin colony of Copia founded do the site of Thurii. Defeat of Boii. Temple of Victoria Virgo on the Palatine.
Latin colony of Valentia founded at Vibo (in Bruttium).
Antiochus, invited by the Aetolians, enters Greece, and is defeated by M'. Acilius Glabrio at Thermopylae, where Cato served as military tribune. The Aetoli, hard pressed, obtain a truce. Temple of Magna Mater on the Palatine and institution of the ludi Megalenses (wrongly said by Livy xxxvi 36 to be the earliest ludi scenici). Lex Acilia concerning the Calendar.
L. Cornelius Scipio, brother of Africanus, with Africanus for his legatus, wins a great victory over Antiochus at Magnesia. (Hannibal had joined Antiochus.)
Peace with Antiochus. The new consul, Cn. Manlius Vulso, makes war on the Galatae without authorisation and suffers severely. Capture of Ambracia from the Aetoli by the other consul M. Fuluius Nobilior (in whose camp was the poet Ennius). Deditio of Aetoli. Latin colony established at Bononia. L. Aemilius Paulus in Spain.
159. FROM THE END OF THE SYRIAN TO THE OUTBREAK OF THE THIRD MACEDONIAN WAR.
Fundi, Formiae and Arpinum receive the full franchise. The ciues sine suffragio cease to exist. Disastrous march of Cn. Manlius through Thrace.
Trial of the Scipios for malversation. Africanus retires to Liternum. A decree ejects from Rome Latins who had settled there without right. From this year on the wars in Liguria and Spain are continuous for a long period. Via Aemilia made from Ariminum to Placentia.
The Bacchanalian conspiracy; drastic punishments.
Death of Africanus (according to Cic. Cato Mai. 6; but in the next year according to Livy). The Senate prohibits the building of a permanent theatre.
Censorship of Cato. Death of Hannibal. Death of Plautus. Third Lex Porcia (possibly). Roman citizen colonies founded at Potentia (in Picenum) and Pisaurum (in Umbria). Basilica Porcia built.
Roman citizen colonies founded at Parma and Mutina, and at Saturnia in Etruria.
Senate checks Ti. Sempronius Gracchus who, as aedile, exacted contributions from the allies for his ludi.
Lex Cornelia Baebia de ambitu. Lex Baebia, restricting the praetorships to four in alternate years. Roman citizen colony founded at Grauiscae in Etruria. The last of the Latin colonies established at Aquileia. Decree of the Senate requires the killing of 8000 enemies as a condition of a triumph.
Lex Villia annalis. Roman citizen colony founded at Luna in Etruria; refounded three years later. Transportation of Ligurians to Samnium (Ligures Corneliani and Baebiani).
Temples of Diana and Iuno Regina by the Circus Flaminius. Death of Philip.
Lex Claudia to eject from Rome the socii who had settled there without right. Ligurians settled near Luna (Ligures Apuani).
Ti. Gracchus subjugates the Sardi, after three campaigns.
Lex Voconia de mulierum hereditatibus (supported by Cato). The cost of stage plays taken over by the State.
Embassies from Greeks to Rome and from Rome to Greece (numerous about this time). Envoys sent to arbitrate between Masinissa and Carthage. Two Epicurean philosophers expelled from Rome. Temple of Fortuna Equestris.
160. FROM THE THIRD MACEDONIAN TO THE THIRD PUNIC WAR.
Two plebeian consuls for the first time.
War with Perseus, king of Macedon. Ill success of the Romans in the first three campaigns. Carteia in Spain receives the Latinitas (the first example).
Death of Ennius. Crates of Mallos reaches Rome from Pergamum sub ipsam Ennii mortem, and lectures on Grammar. Quarrel with Rhodes.
L. Aemilius Paulus, consul, wins the great battle of Pydna. The Illyrian and Epirote allies of Perseus are also beaten. Death of the dramatist Caecilius Statias. Temple of Fortuna huiusce diei on the Palatine.
Macedonia divided into four protectorates. At this time the tributum, ceased to be exacted from the Roman citizen. Polybius, one of 1000 Achaean prisoners, brought to Rome.
The Andria of Terence exhibited at the ludi Megalenses. The ager Campanus regulated.
Perseus dies at Alba. Reconciliation between Rhodes and Rome.
Ptolemy Philometor, ejected from Egypt, is a suppliant for Roman aid.
Greek philosophers and rhetoricians expelled from Rome. The independence of the Jews recognised by the Senate about this time.
The Adelphi of Terence exhibited.
Cato having been sent as one of an embassy to mediate between Carthage and Masinissa, begins his denunciations of Carthage. Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia, ejected from his kingdom, seeks Roman aid. Roman citizen colony founded, at Auximum (in Picenum).
War in Dalmatia. The Lex Aelia and Lex Fufia.
Diogenes the Stoic, Critolaus the Peripatetic and Carneades the Academic visit Rome as envoys from Athens and give lectures in philosophy and rhetoric.
Ligurians who had been laying waste the territory of Massilia were attacked, and a Roman force operated to the West of the Alps for the first time (with the exception of the landing at the Rhone in 218); also the Lex Licinia and Lex Aebutia (forbidding the proposer of a law and his kin to fill an office created by the law) were passed about this time.
Kal. Ian. henceforth is the time for the magistrates (excepting the tribunes and quaestors) to enter on office. The tribunes' day was Dec. 10; the quaestors' Dec. 5. Romans defeated by the Celtiberi.
Surrender of a Roman army to the Lusitani. War between Carthage and Masinissa. Roman embassy to Africa. Temple of Felicitas in the Velabrum.
161. FROM THE THIRD PUNIC WAR TO THE TRIBUNATE OF TI. GRACCHUS.
Law forbidding the consulship to be held twice by the same man. War declared against Carthage. Surrender of Utica.
The severe demands of the Romans force the Carthaginians to continue the war. Viriathus, the Lusitanian leader, wins many successes against the Romans in this and the following years, to 141. War with Andriscus, the pretended son of Perseus in Macedonia. Death of Cato and of Masinissa. Lex Calpurnia de repetundis establishes the first quaestio perpetua.
Poor success of the Romans in Africa. The Via Postumia, from Genua to Verona, constructed. Andriscus overcome.
P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus as consul besieges Carthage. War with the Achaeans.
Destruction of Carthage and establishment of the Roman province of Africa. Corinth destroyed by Mummius. Achaia and Macedonia form another province. Temple of Iuppiter Stator in the circus Flaminius. Ludi Saeculares at Rome (Censorinus, 17, 11).
Attempt to pass a law, submitting the priests of the great colleges to popular election, is foiled by C. Laelius. In this year (probably) C. Laelius introduced an agrarian law and earned the title Sapiens by withdrawing it. Splendid ludi (including scenici) exhibited by L. Mummius.
The aqua Marcia introduced into the city.
Wanton attack by Ap. Claudius (consul) on the Salassi. He triumphs in spite of Senate and people.
Pseudophilippus crushed in Macedonia. Censorship of P. Scipio Aemilianus and L. Mummius. Journey of Scipio to the East. Fabius Maximus Seruilianus the annalist is consul.
Peace on equal terms made by Fabius Maximus with Viriathus. Q. Pompeius makes a treacherous peace with the Numantines. Q. Seruilius, brother of Fabius and consul, breaks the peace. Viriathus assassinated at the instance of Q. Seruilius. Birth of L. Antonius Crassus the orator.
The treaty with Numantia repudiated and war continued. Rising of slaves in Sicily. Lex Gabinia, the first of the Roman ballot laws. Expulsion of Chaldaei from Rome.
Roman defeat by the Numantines. A consul placed in chains by a tribune. Birth of Sulla. Valentia in Spain receives the Latinitas. Temple of Mars in the Campus Martius.
Lex Cassia tabellaria, the second ballot-law. C. Hostilius Mancinus makes peace with the Numantines, to save his army, in which Ti. Gracchus was serving. The Senate repudiate the peace and offer to surrender Mancinus to the Numantines.
The proconsul M. Aemilius Lepidus, having suffered defeat in Spain, is stripped of his imperium.
Great slave rising in Sicily.
Scipio besieges Numantia. In his suite were Iugurtha, Marius and Lucilius the satirist.
162. THE AGE OF THE GRACCHI.
Tribunate of Ti. Gracchus, his Lex Agraria and destruction by a rabble of optimates, headed by P. Scipio Nasica who for safety's sake takes a mission to Asia. Scipio Aemilianus captures Numantia. Attalus III, last king of Pergamon, bequeaths to Rome his realm, of which part becomes the Roman province of Asia. The annalist L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi is consul.
Triumph of Scipio Aemilianus. Rising of Aristonicus in Asia. P. Licinius Crassus, father-in-law of C. Gracchus, fills the vacant place on the agrarian commission, the other two members being C. Gracchus and Ap. Claudius, father-in-law of Ti. Gracchus. The Senate empowers the consuls to arraign and punish the adherents of Ti. Gracchus, Death of Scipio Nasica in Asia. Triumph of D. Brutus over the Lusitani and Gallaeci.
Failure of an attack on Aristonicus. End of the slave revolt in Sicily and settlement of the province by the Leges Rupiliae. C. Papirius Carbo fails to pass his law de tribunis reficiendis, but carries his Lex tabellaria (the third). Two plebeian censors in office together for the first time.
Surrender of Aristonicus.
Dissensions concerning the execution of the agrarian law. The commissioners are deprived of the power of deciding on the limits of the ager publicus. Death of P. Scipio Aemilianus.
Law of M. Iunius Pennus to expel foreigners from Rome and Lex Iunia repetundarum.
M. Fuluius Flaccus proposes a law for enfranchising the socii; then goes off to defend Massilia against the Salluuii. Revolt and destruction of Fregellae.
Aquae Sextiae founded in Gaul by the proconsul C. Sextius. War with the Aruerni and Allobroges. Roman citizen colony established at Fabrateria (a consequence of the destruction of Fregellae). C. Gracchus elected tribune.
The first series of laws brought forward by C. Gracchus, who is reelected to the tribunate.
The Lex iudiciaria and Lex de prouinciis of C. Gracchus. The Lex Acilia repetundarum (C.I.L. 1, 198). Counter agitation by M. Liuius Drusus while Gracchus was absent attempting to found a colony of citizens at Carthage, in accordance with the Lex Rubria. Foundation of the Roman citizen colonies Mineruia (at Scylacium) and Neptunia (at Tarentum); both projected by C. Gracchus.
L. Opimius (consul) attacks the re-founding of Carthage. The senatus consultum ultimum passed for the first time, in pursuance of which C. Gracchus and M. Fuluius Flaccus and many of their followers are massacred. Many citizens tried and executed by order of Senate alone. Victories over Allobroges and Aruerni and in Balearic isles. Repeal of Lex Rubria.