173. SECOND DECENNIUM OF AUGUSTUS.
Birth of Lucius, son of Agrippa and Iulia, who leave Rome for the East. The emperor adopts, as his sons, his two grandsons. The ludi saeculares, with Horace's carmen saeculare.
Defeat of Lollius in Germany. Augustus goes with Tiberius to Gaul. Noricum made a province, under a procurator. Risings in Illyricum, Istria and Thrace. T. Statilius Taurus named Praefectus Vrbi during the absence of Augustus from Rome. Death of Propertius.
Victory of Tiberius and Drusus over the Raeti and Vindelici (1 Aug.). Annexation of their country as a procuratorial province. Pacification and organisation of sub-Alpine districts. Augustus reserves to himself the right to coin gold and silver for the empire, leaving to the Senate the copper coinage (now resumed, after a long period of abeyance). Birth of Germanicus (son of Drusus) and of Drusus (son of Tiberius).
Many colonies founded about this time, especially in Spain and Gaul. Agrippa confirms Jewish privileges in the cities of Asia. Privileges conferred on the Jews by Agrippa.
First consulship of Tiberius (passed in Rome). Return of Augustus to the capital (4 July). Drusus in sole command in Gaul and on the Rhine. Return of Agrippa and renewal of his tribunicia potestas for five years; he leaves to suppress a great revolt in Pannonia. Death of Lepidus, formerly Triumvir (vacating the office of Pontifex Maximus). Probable date of the fourth book of Horace's Odes and his Epistle to Augustus.
Election of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus (6 Mar.). After this the office is restricted to the emperors. Death of Agrippa. Tiberius succeeds him in Pannonia, while Drusus repels the Sicambri and other tribes on the Rhine. Important operations of a Roman flotilla on the Rhine and the sea-coast between Rhine and Weser. The Epistle of Horace to Florus.
Dedication of the theatre of Marcellus (4 May). Death of the emperor's sister Octavia. Tiberius compelled to divorce the daughter of Agrippa, and to marry Iulia. Victories of Drusus on the Rhine. Campaign of Tiberius in Pannonia. Trouble in Thrace and Macedonia. Illyricum transferred from Senate to Emperor.
Augustus inaugurates (1 Aug.) the ara Romae et Augusti at Lugudunum. Claudius born there on the same day. Continuance of the war in Germany and Pannonia. Herod completes Caesarea, so named in honour of Augustus.
Dedication of the ara pacis Augustae (30 Jan.). Drusus penetrates to the Elbe, but during his retreat dies from the effect of a fall from his horse (14 Sept.). Tiberius brings the body to Rome. The name Germanicus bestowed on Drusus and his descendants. Triumph of Tiberius over Dalmatians and Pannonians. Horace's Epistle to the Pisones. Livy's History ended with this year.
Imperium pro consulare renewed for ten years. The mensis Sextilis becomes mensis Augustus. Victories of Tiberius over the Sicambri and other Germans. Census of Roman citizens. Fresh municipal organisation of Rome; creation of 14 regiones and 265 uici. The arch at Susa erected by Cottius in honour of the emperor. Death of Maecenas. Death of Horace.
174. THIRD DECENNIUM OF AUGUSTUS.
Triumph of Tiberius for German victories. Fresh campaign in Germany.
Bestowal of the tribunicia potestas on Tiberius for five years. He is sent on an important mission to the East, but retires for some years to Rhodes. The tropaeum Augusti at Turbia erected to commemorate the subjugation of 46 sub-Alpine tribes.
The prince Gaius assumes the toga uirilis and among other honours is named princeps iuuentutis by the Equites.
Death of Herod. His will, dividing his dominions among three sons, confirmed by Augustus. Census of the Jews carried out by the legate of Syria, P. Sulpicius Quirinius. Disturbances in Judaea. Birth of L. Annaeus Seneca at Corduba.
Augustus receives the title pater patriae. Recipients of corn at Rome reduced from 320,000 to 200,000. The prince Lucius assumes the toga uirilis and receives honours (including the title princeps iuuentutis). Banishment of Iulia (with her daughter Iulia) and punishment of her accomplices.
Gaius goes, on a mission of importance, to the East.
Gaius consul (though in Syria).
Gaius meets the Parthian king on the Euphrates. Death of his brother Lucius at Massilia (20 Aug.). Rising of Cherusci and Chauci. Return of Tiberius to Rome.
Imperium proconsulare renewed for ten years. Gaius wounded in Armenia.
175. FOURTH DECENNIUM OF AUGUSTUS.
Gaius dies of his wound in Lycia (21 Feb.). Augustus causes Tiberius to adopt as his son Germanicus, son of Drusus; then Augustus adopts both as his own sons. Grant of imperium proconsulare and tribunicia potestas to Tiberius for ten years (so Dio; five years, Suet.); he defeats the Cherusci. The Lex Aelia Sentia. Temple at Nemausus in honour of Gaius and Lucius (Maison Carrée at Nîmes).
Roman army marches to the Elbe, and is met there by the flotilla. Famine at Rome.
Creation of the aerarium militare. Imposition of the uicesima hereditatum and the centesima rerum uenalium. Sore famine leads to the creation of a new equestrian office, the praefectura annonae. The corps of uigiles established, under an equestrian praefectus. The provinces of Sardinia (with Corsica) and Moesia transferred to the emperor. Judaea (with Samaria) becomes a procuratorial province, on the expulsion of Archelaus. Tiberius, about to attack Maroboduus, is further menaced by a great insurrection in Dalmatia and Illyricum, but is saved from destruction by a compact with Maroboduus.
Victory of Germanicus in Dalmatia and of the army of Tiberius in Pannonia. The arch of Pavia erected. Exile of Agrippa Postumus, the last surviving grandson of Augustus.
The force of the rebellion is broken.
Triumph of Tiberius, and his return to Pannonia. Great defeat of Varus by Arminius at the saltus Teutoburgensis. Tiberius with Germanicus, on the Rhine. The Lex Papia Poppaea. 9 (or 8) The relegatio of Ovid.
Rhine defences organised; four legions in upper Germany, with headquarters at Moguntiacum (Mainz); four in lower, with headquarters at Castra Vetera (Xanten). Vonones, a hostage at Rome, sent by Augustus to occupy the Parthian throne.
First consulship of Germanicus. Tiberius in sole command on the Rhine. Birth of Gaius (Caligula, son of Germanicus and Agrippina).
Triumph of Tiberius for victories in Pannonia. Renewal of his proconsulare imperium and tribunicia potestas without limit of time. Germanicus left on the Rhine. Imperial powers of Augustus renewed for ten years. Piso is Praefectus Vrbi (till 32) in the absence of the emperor.
176. LAST MONTHS OF AUGUSTUS. FIRST NINE YEARS OF TIBERIUS' REIGN.
Census of Roman citizens (nearly 5,000,000 enumerated). Death of Augustus at Nola (19 Aug.) and succession of Tiberius. Execution of Agrippa Postumus. The ashes of Augustus deposited in his Mausoleum. His deification (17 Sept.). Powers of the comitia transferred to the Senate. Great military mutinies in Pannonia and Germany. Death of Iulia, daughter of Augustus. The Astronomica of Manilius written after the dedication of Augustus. Final composition of the Monumentum Ancyranum.
Perilous campaign against Arminius.
Germanicus advances to the Elbe, and returns by the river and the sea to the Rhine. He is recalled, and the attempt to extend the Roman frontier to the Elbe is abandoned. Birth of the younger Agrippina.
Triumph of Germanicus (26 May), who goes to the East. Rising of Tacfarinas in Africa (not subdued for many years). Annexation of Cappadocia and Commagene. Death of Ovid at Tomi, and of Livy at Patavium.
Feud between Germanicus and Piso, legate of Syria.
Germanicus in Egypt. His death in Syria (10 Oct.). Piso compelled by the troops to leave Syria. Marobodums in exile at Ravenna. Lex Iunia Norbana.
Agrippina brings the ashes of Germanicus to Rome. Pisa, charged with treason and procuring the death of Germanicus, commits suicide.
Tiberius retires for a time to Campania. Rising of Iulius Florus and Iulius Sacrouir in Gaul. The arch at Arausio (Orange) erected to commemorate their defeat. Assassination of Arminius.
Tribunicia potestas conferred on Drusus, son of Tiberius.
Seianus, Prefect of the Praetorians, concentrates them in a camp just outside the city walls. Death of Drusus, son of Tiberius (attributed by Tacitus to Seianus). Temple in honour of Tiberius, Liuia and the Senate, at Smyrna.
177. END OF TIBERIUS' REIGN.
Feud of Seianus with Agrippina. Final departure of Tiberius from Rome, after which time the new office of Praefectus Vrbi becomes permanent (even in the emperor's presence). Pontius Pilate procurator of Judaea.
Tiberius settles at Capreae.
Appearance of Tiberius and Seianus in Campania. Servility of the Senate. Death of Iulia, grand-daughter of Augustus, in exile. Marriage of the younger Agrippina with Cn. Domitius.
Agrippina the elder and her son Nero exiled. Drusus, another son of Germanicus, imprisoned.
The history of Velleius Paterculus published.
Seianus receives the imperium proconsulare, but is soon after destroyed, with his family and many adherents. Macro succeeds to the command of the Praetorians.
Great financial crisis (Tac. Ann. vi 16, 17). Execution of Drusus, son of Germanicus. Death of the elder Agrippina.
Pontius Pilate, accused of maladministration, sent to Rome by L. Vitellius, legate of Syria. Herod Agrippa imprisoned.
Death of Tiberius at Misenum (16 Mar.). Phaedrus flourishes under Tiberius and Gaius.