178. THE REIGN OF GAIUS.
Gaius (Caligula) emperor (18 Mar.). Tiberius (grandson of the emperor Tiberius) forced to commit suicide. Gaius is consul for a few days; Claudius also consul (his first office). Birth of Nero (the future emperor).
Gaius restores the comitia. He puts to death and then deifies his sister Drusilla. Riots at Alexandria between Jews and Gentiles, who had tried to place statues of Gaius in the synagogues. Deposition of Auillius Flaccus, Prefect of Egypt Macro's enforced suicide.
Numerous executions. Conspiracy of Lepidus and Gaetulicus, on account of which the emperor's sisters suffer relegatio. Herod Antipas exiled. Birth of Lucan.
Gaius visits Gaul. Hearing that an altar erected to him on the borders of Judaea had been destroyed by Jews, he orders the legate of Sytia to place an imperial effigy in the temple at Jerusalem. Herod Agrippa takes over the dominions of Antipas. Auillius Flaccus executed. After making a feint on Britain, Gaius returns to Rome (31 Aug.). Deputation of Jews and Greeks from Alexandria, described by Philo (a member of it) in the Legatio ad Gaium. Herod Agrippa induces Gaius to cancel his order about the temple at Jerusalem. Murder of Ptolemy, king of Mauretania.
179. THE REIGN OF CLAUDIUS.
Gaius killed (24 Jan.) partly on account of immense taxation and confiscation. Claudius made emperor next day. The first example of a donative to soldiers on accession. The murder of Gaius is avenged and his sisters are recalled. Herod Agrippa's dominions, increased by cession of Judaea, are now nearly as extensive as those of Herod the Great. Judaea ceases to be a procuratorial province. Iulia Liuilla, sister of Gaius, banished at the instance of Messalina. This entails the exile of Seneca, who wrote his Consolatio ad Marciam about this time, and his Consolatio ad Heluiam during exile. Curtius Rufus flourishes under Claudius. Commagene restored to a native prince.
The Romans for the first time cross the Atlas range. Two provinces of Mauretania organised (Caesariana and Tingitana), under procurators.
Expedition to Britain; Claudius there for 16 days. Defeat of Caractacus and capture of Camalodunum. The emperor's young son receives the title Britannicus. A. Plautius governor of the new province. Seneca's Consolatio ad Polybium.
Achaia and Macedonia transferred to Senate. Quaestors replace praetores aerarii. Death of Herod Agrippa. Judaea once more a province.
Edict of Claudius about the Anauni (C. I. L. v 5050). Ti. Alexander, nephew of Philo, procurator of Judaea. Birth of Plutarch.
Ludi Saeculares (21 Ap.). Corbulo in Germany. Victories of Vespasian and Titus in Britain. Triumph of A. Plautius (the last full triumph accorded to a subject). Claudius (by plebiscitum) adds three new letters to the alphabet.
Claudius grants the Aedui the right to become senators. As censor he registers about 7,000,000 citizens. Death of Messalina and her paramour. Intrigues about a new imperial marriage.
Claudius marries his brother's daughter Agrippina (the candidate of Pallas) after an enactment bad been passed permitting such marriages. Seneca recalled to become tutor to Agrippina's son Domitius. Octauia, daughter of Claudius, betrothed to Domitius.
Claudius adopts Domitius (henceforward L. Claudius Nero). Foundation of Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) and of Roman colony at Camalodunum, with an altar to Roma (or Victoria) and Claudius.
Burrus becomes Prefect of the Praetorians. Birth of Domitian (23 Oct.). Continued commotions in the East.
Felix (brother of Pallas) procurator in Judaea.
Marriage of Nero and Octauia.
Claudius poisoned (12 Oct.). Nero emperor (13 Oct.). Claudius deified. War with Parthia; Corbulo one of the commanders. Birth of Tacitus (probably). Seneca's Ludus de morte Claudi (the Apocolocyntosis).
180. REIGN OF NERO.
Nero consul. Pallas ceases to be minister of finance, and is succeeded by Claudius Etruscus. Dissension between Nero and his mother. Britannicus poisoned. Seneca's De Clementia (dedicated to Nero).
Seneca consul. The quaestores aerarii replaced by praefecti aerarii, nominated by the emperor.
Active operations against Parthia. The emperor proposes to abolish all uectigalia, but is dissuaded.
Murder of Agrippina. Success of Corbulo in Armenia. Suetonius Paullinus legate in Britain.
Festus succeeds Felix in Judaea.
Vespasian consul, Capture of Mona by Paullinus. Great rising of Iceni (under Boadicea) and Trinobantes. Camalodunum burnt; Londinium and Verulamium captured by insurgents. Great slaughter of Romans and their allies. Victory of Paullinus, and suicide of Boadicea.
War with Parthia continued. Death of Burrus. Tigellinus becomes Prefect of the Praetorians, with a colleague. Divorce and murder of Octauia. Nero marries Poppaea. Death of Persius.
Arrangement with Parthia. Latinitas bestowed on the people of the Maritime Alps.
Burning of Rome (19-28 July) and execution of Christians.
Great conspiracy of Piso, for which many suffer death (including Lucan and Seneca) and many exile (among them Musonius Rufus). Death of Poppaea.
Many executions. Paetus Thrasea killed; also Petronius(author of the Satirae). Heluidius Priscus exiled. Widespread insurrection in Judaea, where Vespasian becomes military commander. The temple of Janus closed for the fifth time. Nero in Greece.
Victories of Vespasian and Titus over the Jews. Execution of Corbulo.
181. FALL OF NERO TO LAST YEAR OF VESPASIAN.
Further victories of Vespasian. Rebellion of Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, who is crushed at Vesontio by Verginius Rufus, legate of upper Germany (March). Galba, governor of the prouincia Tarmconensis, becomes a pretender to the throne. Nero, after being declared publicus hostis, is killed by a servant at his own request. Galba, accompanied by Otho, reaches Rome (Oct.). His unpopularity.
Vitellius, commander in lower Germany, is saluted as emperor by his troops, and the legions of upper Germany follow suit (Jan.). Adoption of Piso by Galba (10 Jan.). Galba and Piso killed by Praetorians, who make Otho emperor (15 Jan.). After some failures the legions of Vitellius defeat the forces of Otho at Bedriacum (14 Ap.). Suicide of Otho Vitellius recognised as emperor (middle of July). Vespasian proclaimed emperor at Alexandria by Ti. Alexander, the Prefect (1 July). He is accepted by the soldiers in the East and on the Danube. His troops sack Cremona (end of Oct.), and capture Rome (21 Dec.), whereupon Vespasian is accepted as emperor. Death of Vitellius (24 Dec.). Rebellion of Batavian cohorts in Germany under Ciuilis.
Vespasian reaches Rome in Oct. The Lex regia Vespasiani. Titus takes Jerusalem (Sept.). Iulius Classicus and Iulius Tutor proclaim the imperium Galliarum (early in the year) and are joined by the troops and the Batavians with Ciuilis. Order restored by Cerealis, the legate of lower Germany. Institution of professorships by Vespasian; one filled by Quintilian.
First consulship of Domitian. Triumph of Vespasian and Titus over Judaea (June). Titus becomes Prefect of the Praetorians and receives the tribunicia potestas. Temple of Janus closed for the sixth time.
Vespasian and Titus elected censors. Exile and enforced suicide of Heluidius Priscus (about this time).
Sardinia with Corsica transferred to the emperor.
Latinitas conferred on all districts in Spain not already possessed of the full ciuitas. The last registration of Roman citizens completed.
Expulsion of philosophers. Temple of Pax completed, with a forum round it richly adorned with statues.
Birth of Hadrian (24 Jan.). Parthian invasion of Syria.
Titus again elected censor. Agricola in Britain. Marriage of Tacitus with his daughter.
182. TITUS AND DOMITIAN.
Death of Vespasian and accession of Titus (23 June). Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum (Aug.). Death of Pliny the elder.
Great fire at Rome. The Coliseum (Amphitheatrum Flauianum) and the Thermae of Titus opened.
Erection of the arch of Titus. Death of Titus and accession of Domitian (13 Sept.). Agricola reaches the Clyde and Forth. The Dialogus of Tacitus composed about this time.
Lex Salpensana and Lex Malacitana. Domitian's campaign in Germany. Agricola in the extreme N.E. of Britain.
Victory of Agricola over Galgacus. He sends his fleet round Britain.
Domitian censor for life. Recall of Agricola.
The emperor in Moesia to repel the Dacians (under Decebalus). Birth of Antoninus Pius (19 Sept.). Revolt of Saturninus. Many executions. The agon Capitolinus instituted.
Tacitus praetor. Ludi saeculares celebrated.
War with Marcomanni. Peace with Dacians, who receive a subsidy from Rome. Triumph of Domitian (Nov.). Plutarch in Rome about this time.
Edict against philosophers. Retirement of Quintilian.
Death of Falerius Flaccus, who had dedicated his Argonautica to Vespasian.
Domitian's campaign against the Sarmatae and Sueui.
Herennius Senecio, Arulenus Rusticus and the younger Heluidius Priscus condemned to death. Second edict against philosophers. Death of the finance minister Claudius Etruscus (servant of ten emperors), and of Agricola.
Execution of Clemens, cousin of Domitian, and Glabrio an ex-consul, possibly for Christianity.
Death of Statius.