183. NERVA AND TRAJAN.
Murder of Domitian (18 Sept.) and election of Nerua by the Senate (19 Sept.). The Lex agraria of Nerua (the last law voted by the comitia).
Adoption of Trajan by Nerua. Institution of the alimenta.
Nerua's death (25 Jan.). Trajan (absent on the Rhine) succeeds, and passes the winter on the Danube. Tacitus consul; he publishes the Agricola and writes the Germania.
The younger Pliny consul. He delivers his Panegyricus. Marriage of Hadrian with Trajan's niece, Iulia Sabina. Death of Herod Agrippa II (last of the Herods). Extension of alimenta.
Trajan's first victory over Decebalus. Death of Silius and (about this time) of Martial.
Capture of Sarmizegethusa, and peace with the Dacians. Alimenta established at Velleia.
New war against Decebalus, ending in 106 with his death and the annexation of Dacia.
Triumph of Trajan.
Pliny, as governor of Bithynia, corresponds with Trajan about the Christians. Marriage of Antoninus Pius and Faustina.
Trajan begins his campaigns against Parthia. Completion of the Forum and Column of Trajan and the Basilica Ulpia. Death of Pliny the younger.
Conquest of Mesopotamia. The arch at Beneuentum erected in Trajan's honour. Jewish agitations begin.
Capture of Babylon and Ctesiphon. Jewish risings in several places. The Annals of Tacitus published.
First Book of Juvenal, whose latest Satires are later than 127.
184. HADRIAN's REIGN.
Death of Trajan amid trouble in the East (8 or 9 Aug.). Hadrian, who had been adopted by Trajan, succeeds and abandons Trajan's Eastern conquests. He founds the colony of Aelia Capitolina at Jerusalem.
Conspiracy of old officers of Trajan. Hadrian reaches Rome (7 or Aug.).
Death of Tacitus.
Suetonius' Lives of the Caesars.
Hadrian travels over many of the Western provinces. Birth of M. Aurelius (26 Ap.).
Hadrian in Britain. Construction of the wall and vallum between Solway and Tyne.
Hadrian in Asia Minor. Rescript regulating trials of Christians.
Creation of four new officers named Iuridici, to administer law in Italy.
Birth of Pertinax (1 Aug.). Apology of Quadratus and Apology of Aristides for the Christians presented to Hadrian (about this time).
Hadrian at Athens. Builds the city of Hadrian there opposite the city of Theseus.
Great revolt of Jews under Bar-Cocheba. P. Saluius Iulianus (praetor urbanus) issues the final edition of the edictum petpetuum, known afterwards as edictum Saluianum.
Jewish insurrection suppressed.
Hadrian adopts L. Ceionius Commodus, whose daughter is betrothed to M. Annius Verus. Death of the empress Sabina.
185. ANTONINUS PIUS, M. AURELIUS AND L. VERUS.
Death of Hadrian's adopted son. Hadrian adopts T. Aurelius Antoninus, who had adopted his nephew M. Annius Verus (Marcus Aurelius) and also the son of L. Ceionius Commodus (Lucius Verus). Death of Hadrian (10 July). Succession of Antoninus, surnamed Pius by the Senate.
Hadrian deified, against the Senators' wishes.
Death of the empress Faustina, in whose honour endowments are created for the nurture of poor girls (Faustinianae).
Lollius Vrbicus defeats the Brigantes and constructs a line of defensive works between Forth and Clyde (the wall of Antoninus).
Marriage of M. Aurelius and the younger Faustina.
M. Aurelius receives the imperium proconsulare, the tribunicia potestas, and the ius quintae relationis.
Justin's first defence of the Christians, addressed to Antoninus, M. Aurelius and L. Perus.
War with Parthia, concluded in the year following.
Justin's second Apology for the Christians, addressed to the Senate.
Death and deification of Antoninus, who had named as his successor M. Aurelius. The new emperor names L. Verus as joint-emperor. For the first time two emperors rule the empire together. The Institutiones of Gaius published.
Parthians expelled from Armenia by L. Verus.
Peace between Rome and Parthia. Widespread pestilence.
Rising of Marcomanni and barbarian invasions of Dacia, Pannonia, Noricum and Raetia. M. Aurelius and L. Verus on the Danube. Famine and pestilence prevalent.
Peace with the barbarians.
Death and deification of L. Verus. A fresh barbarian invasion threatens Aquileia. The emperor on the Danube. The Noctes Atticae of Aulus Gellius.
The Langobardi appear on the Rhine and the Mauri invade Spain.
Victories over the Marcomanni and Iazyges.
Spain harassed by the Mauri.
Victory over the Quadi (connected with the legend of the Thundering legion). The Meditations written about this time.
Peace with barbarians. Revolt and death of Auidius Cassius in Syria. Death and deification of Faustina.
The emperor at Antioch, Alexandria and Athens (where chairs of philosophy are endowed by him).
Rising of Marcomanni and other barbarians.
186. FROM THE ACCESSION OF COMMODUS TO THE DEATH OF SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS.
Death of M. Aurelius, of plague, by the Danube (17 Mar.). Commodus succeeds. Pacification of Daci, Quadi, Iazyges, Vandali. Perennis is Prefect of Praetorians.
Conspiracy set on foot by the emperor's sister Lucilla; her execution and that of the empress Crispina.
Perennis executed; Cleander Prefect of the Praetorians.
Famine at Rome, charged by the populace on Cleander, who is executed.
Pertinax is Praefectus Vrbi. Many executions.
Commodus murdered (1 Jan.). Pertinax made emperor, but he is assassinated by the Praetorians (28 Mar.), who give the throne to Didius Iulianus. Pescennius Niger, governor of Syria, named emperor by troops in the East. The legions at Camuntum proclaim as emperor their general Septimius Seuerus. He reaches Rome (2 June). The Praetorians disbanded and a new body organised. Seuerus offers Albinus, legate in Britain, the tide Caesar, and marches against Niger, whose forces suffer defeat. Siege of Byzantium begun. Pertinax deified.
Plautianus is Praefectus Praetorio. Niger crushed at Issus and killed at Antioch.
Victories of Seuerus over Eastern tribes. He is the first emperor to describe himself as proconsul.
Capture and punishment of Byzantium. War against Albinus (declared emperor by his troops and supported generally in the West).
Seuerus defeats Albinus in a great battle near Lugudunum. Death of Albinus. Execution of many sympathisers in the Senate. Britain divided into two provinces. Deification of Commodus. Seuerus goes to the East to attack Parthia.
Caracalla proclaimed Augustus and his brother Geta, Caesar.
The Liber Apologeticus of Tertullian.
Seuerus returns to Rome, victorious, but refuses a triumph. Marriage of Caracalla with the daughter of Plautianus.
Plautianus killed by order of Caracalla, in presence of Seuerus, for alleged conspiracy. Executions of supposed accomplices. The lawyer Papinian succeeds Plautianus as Prefect of the Praetorians. Birth of Plotinus.
Seuerus in Britain, to check invasions from the north.
Geta proclaimed Augustus.
Seuerus, after having suffered serious losses, wins some success, followed by a revolt of the Caledonii and Maeatae.
Seuerus dies at York (4 Feb.). Geta and Caracalla return to Rome.
187. FROM CARACALLA TO THE LAST YEAR OF SEVERUS ALEXANDER.
Murder of Geta, charged with conspiracy. Many executions. Constitution of Caracalla, spreading Roman citizenship over the empire.
War with German tribes. The Alamanni (who now first appear) defeated.
Caracalla in Thrace and Asia Minor.
Caracalla, at Alexandria, orders a great massacre. Completion of his Thermae. He tampers with the coinage.
Attack on Edessa and Parthia.
Caracalla murdered near Carrhae, by contrivance of Macrinus, Prefect of Praetorians, who is made emperor by the soldiers. Death of Iulia Domna, widow of Seuerus.
Macrinus buys peace with Parthia. Some troops set up as emperor Bassianus, grandson of a sister of Iulia Domna, and priest of Elagabalus at Emesa.
Bassianus (Elagabalus) reaches Rome (19 Sept.). Temple of the god Elagabalus built at Rome.
The emperor adopts his cousin Seuerus Alexander (10 July).
Soldiers, incited by Iulia Mamaea (mother of Seuerus Alexander) kill Elagabalus. Seuerus Alexander succeeds (11 Mar.). Ulpian now Prefect of Praetorians.
The Sassanid dynasty (Persian) succeeds the Arsacid (Parthian).
Ulpian killed by Praetorians.
Persian army in Cappadocia. Alexander heads an expedition which next year fails disastrously.
Alexander celebrates his victories at Rome and next year leaves with his mother for Germany, to repel an invasion.