for Schwickerath's Jesuit Education
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1. Primary Sources.
The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus. Numerous editions in Latin. The English translation, published by a Protestant in 1838 (London, Rivington, etc.), is very unscholarly and unreliable. The fourth part of the Constitutions, which treats of the studies, is given in Latin and German in the work of Father Pachtler quoted further on (vol. I, pp. 9-69).
Decreta Congregationum Generalium. (Decrees of the General Congregations of the Society.) The General Congregation is the legislative assembly of the Order; the decrees of different Congregations relating to studies are contained in Father Pachtler's work, vol. I, pp. 70-125.
Ratio atque Institutio Studiorum Societatis Jesu, usually quoted as Ratio Studiorum. Latin text and German translation in Pachtler's Vol. II, and German translation in Father Duhr's Studienordnung.
[ Information on the recent English bilingual edition is available elsewhere at this site.]
Pachtler, G. M., S.J. Ratio Studiorum et Institutiones Scholasticae Societatis Jesu per Germaniam olim vigentes. Berlin, Hofmann, 1887-1894. Volumes II, V, IX, and XVI of the great collection Monumenta Germaniae Paedagogica, edited by Dr. Karl Kehrbach.
This is the standard work on the educational system of the Jesuits; it contains all the most important historical documents relating to Jesuit education, particularly in Germany. The great value of the work has been acknowledged by numerous historians and writers on pedagogy. (We quote: Pachtler, I, II, III, IV.)
Monumenta Historica Societatis Jesu, Madrid, 1894 foll. A huge collection of material relating to the early history of the Society. Published since 1894 in monthly instalments of 160 pages each; up to February 1903 there were out 110 instalments. The collection is a most valuable source of information for the history of religion and education in the sixteenth century. Of particular importance for the history of Jesuit education are instalments 93, 97, 99, 100, 101, 194, entitled:
Monumenta Paedagogica, Madrid, 1901-1902.
To be carefully distinguished from Father Pachtler's volumes in the Monumenta Germaniae Paedagogica.
The following works are important commentaries on the Ratio Studiorum:
Sacchini, F., S. J., Paraenesis ad Magistros Scholarum Inferiorum Societatis Jesu, and Protrepticon ad Magistros Scholarum Inferiorum Societatis Jesu (1625). — German translation by J. Stier, S. J., in Herder's Bibliothek der katholischen Pädagogik, 1898, vol. X, pp. 1-185.
Jouvancy, J., S. J., Ratio Discendi et Docendi (1703). Of this important educational work (see above pp. 434-435) there exist eighteen, editions in the original Latin, a French translation by J. Lefortier, Paris 1803, and a recent German translation: Lern- and Lehrmethode, by R. Schwickerath, S.J., in Herder's Bibliothek, etc., 1898, Vol. X, pp. 207-322.
Kropf, F. X., S. J., Ratio et Via Recte atque Ordine Procedendi in Literis Humanioribus Aetati Tenerae Tradendis (1736). German translation: Gymnasial-Pädagogik, by F. Zorell, S. J., in Herder's Bibliothek, Vol. X, pp. 323-466. (We quote Kropf, Ratio et Via. )
2. Works Treating Exclusively of Jesuit Education.
Hughes, T., S. J., Loyola and the Educational System of the Jesuits. New York, Scribners, 1892. — Belongs to the Great Educators Series, edited by Nicholas Murray Butler.
Duhr, B., S. J., Die Studienordnung der Gesellschaft Jesu. — Freiburg (Germany) and St. Louis, Mo., 1896. — Contains the translation of the Ratio Studiorum (both of 1599 and of 1832), and a valuable commentary. Father Duhr's work is volume IX of Herder's Bibliothek der katholischen Pädagogik.
Maynard, Abbé, The Studies and Teaching of the Society of Jesus at the Time of its Suppression. Translated from the French. Baltimore, John Murphy, 1855.
De Rochemonteix, C., S. J., Un Collège de Jesuites aux XVIL et XVIII. siècles. Le Collège Henri IV. de la Flèche. 4 volumes. Le Mans, Leguicheux, 1889. This work gives the history of one of the most flourishing colleges of the Society in France; from detailed descriptions based on documentary evidence, one can learn how the Ratio Studiorum was carried into practice.
Chossat, M., S. J., Les Jésuites et leurs oeuvres à Avignon, 1553-1768. Avignon, Seguin, 1896. This work, like the preceding, furnishes interesting details about the working of the Jesuit system.
De Badts de Cugnac, A., Les Jésuites et l'éducation. Lille, Desclée, 1879
3. Works Having Particular Reference to Jesuit Education.
Paulsen, F., Gesehichte des gelehrten Unterrichts auf den deutschen Schulen and Universitäten vom Ausgang des Mittelalters bis zur Gegenwart. Leipsic, Veit and Co., 1885; second edition in two volumes, 1896-1897. Dr. Paulsen is one of the leading Professors of the University of Berlin. Of the present work the Report of the Commissioner of Education (1896-1897, I, p. 199) says: "It is a most thorough historical review of higher education known in the educational literature of any country." The chapter on the colleges of the Society and the educational labors of the Jesuits (vol. 1, pp. 379-432) is far more thorough, more independent, and more impartial, than most books written on the Jesuits by non-Catholics.
Schmid, K. A., Geschichte der Erziehung vom Anfang bis auf unsere Zeit. 5 volumes in 10 parts, by a number of scholars and educators. Stuttgart, Cotta, 1884-1901 (Part 3 of volume V, which will complete this great history of education, is not yet out).
On Jesuit education see volume III, Abteilung 1, pp. 1-109 (by Prof. Dr. Müller of Dresden); pp. 159175 ("Jesuit Colleges in France," by Dr. B. von Sallwürk, Karlsruhe). — Volume IV, Abteilung 1, pp. 455-467; 538-543. — Volume V, Abteilung 2, pp. 176-221 ("Jesuit Education since 1600; Suppression and Restoration of the Society; the Revised Ratio Studiorum," by Dr. von Sallwürk). — The articles on the Jesuit schools are not free from some serious misinterpretations of the Ratio Studiorum. Especially Dr. Müller has misunderstood and rendered falsely several passages. In other cases, he applies to the secular students of Jesuit Colleges rules which are only for the younger members of the Society engaged in studies (scholastics ).
Ziegler, T., Geschichte der Pädagogik. Munich, Beck, 1895. Is part 1, of vol. I of the Handbuch der Erziehungs- and Unterrichtslehre für höhere Schulen, edited by Dr. A. Baumeister. Dr. Ziegler, Professor of Philosophy and Pedagogy in the University of Strasburg, is a prominent writer on education in Germany. In point of impartiality he is inferior to Professor Paulsen.
Willmann, O., Didaktik als Bildungslehre. 2 volumes, Braunschweig, Vieweg, second edition, 1894. The author, a pupil of Herbart, became a Catholic, and is now Professor of Philosophy and Pedagogy in the University of Prague, and one of the ablest educational writers in the German tongue. His Didaktik is one of the most important pedagogical works published within the last decades.
Quick, H., Educational Reformers. London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1868. The revised edition forms part of the International Education Series, New York, Appleton, 1890.
Jourdain, C., Histoire de l' University de Paris aux 17e et 18e siècles. 2 volumes. Paris, Didot, 1888. A very valuable work; gives an account of the struggles of the Jesuits with the University.
Duhr, B., S. J., Jesuitenfabeln (Jesuit myths). Freiburg and St. Louis, Herder, 3. edition, 1899. To this work readers must be referred who wish to see the absurdity of most legends about the Jesuits. The book has, in the words of a non-Catholic review, "done away with a heap of calumnies against the Order." (Literarisches Centralblatt, Leipzig, 1899.)
Du Lac, S. J., Jésuites. Paris, Librairie Plon, 1901
Huber, J., Der Jesuiten-Orden. Berlin, Habel, 1873.
Janssen, J., Geschichte des deutschen Volkes seit der Ausgang des Mittelalters. 8 volumes. Herder, Freiburg and St. Louis. The edition used is the 18th of the first three volumes 1897-1899); 16th of vols. IV and VI; 14th of vol. V; 12th of vols. VII and VIII. The first three volumes have been translated into English:
History of the German People at the Close of the Middle Ages, by M. A. Mitchell and A. M. Christie. 6 volumes. London, Kegan Paul, 1896, 1900, 1903, and St. Louis, Mo., Herder. It is superfluous to comment on this famous work. No historical work of the 19th century caused such a stir all over Europe as the history of the Reformation period written by Janssen from the testimony of the Reformers and their contemporaries. Unfortunately the greater part of Dr. Janssen's illustrative notes, in which the chief value of the work consists, are missing in the English version. Besides, it is not free from mistranslations; hence the German original ought to be consulted. — Jesuit education is chiefly treated in volumes IV, V and VII.
4. Miscellaneous Works.
Butler, N. M., Education in the United States. A Series of Monograms prepared for the United States Exhibit at the Paris Exposition, 1900. Edited by Nicholas Murray Butler. Albany, J. B. Lyon Company, 1900.
Newman, Cardinal, Idea of a University, and Historical Sketches. London and New York, Longmans.
Russell, J. E., German Higher Schools. New York, Longmans, 1899. Gives a good account of the German Gymnasium, its history, organization and practical working.
The Life of James McCosh. A Record Chiefly Autobiographical. Edited by W. M. Sloane. New York, Scribners, 1897. The life of the President of Princeton College is deserving of the careful study of all American teachers.
Fitch, Sir Joshua, Thomas and Matthew Arnold and their Influence on English Education. New York, Scribners, 1897. (Great Educators Series.)
Alzog, J., Manual of Universal Church History. Translated from the German by Dr. Pabisch and Professor Byrne. 3 volumes. Cincinnati, Clarke, 1878.
Pastor, L., The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages. Edited by F. I. Antrobus. 6 volumes. London, John Hodges and Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., 1891 foll., and Herder, St. Louis, Mo. The original German edition in 3 volumes, Herder, Freiburg and St. Louis, Mo.
Guggenberger, A., S. J., A General History of the Christian Era. 3 volumes. St. Louis, Herder, 1900-1901.
Rashdall, H., Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. 2 volumes in 3 parts. Oxford, 1895.
Drane, A. T., Christian Schools and Scholars, or Sketches of Education from the Christian Era to the Council of Trent. 2 volumes. London, Longmans, 1867. Popularly written; in many parts antiquated.
Taylor, H. O.; The Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages. New York, Columbia University Press (Macmillan), 1900.
Einstein, L., The Italian Renaissance in England. New York, Columbia University Press, 1902. Woodward, W. H., Vittorino da Feltre and other Humanist Educators. Cambridge, University Press, 1897.
Gasquet, F. A., O.S.B., The Eve of the Reformation. London and New York, 1900.
Baumgartner, A., S. J., Geschichte der Weltliteratur. Herder, 1897-1900. Of this magnificent history of Universal Literature four volumes are out so far. Volumes III and IV were used chiefly. (On this great work see pp. 233-234.)
Nagelsbach, C. F., Gymnasial — Pädagogik. Third edition, Erlangen, 1879.
Dettweiler, P., Didaktik and Methodik des Lateinischen. Munich, Beck, 1895.
_______. Didaktik and Methodik des Griechischen. Munich, Beck, 1898. These two excellent books belong to Baumeister's Handbuch der Erziehungs- and Unterrichtslehre.
Schiller, H., Handbuch der praktischen Pädagogik für höhere Lehranstalten. Leipsic, Reisland, 1894, 3d edition.
_______. Lehrpläne and Lehraufgaben für die höheren Schulen in Preussen, 1901 (The Prussian School Order). Official edition. Halle, Waisenhaus, 1901.
Verhandlungen über die Fragen des höheren Unterrichts. Berlin, 6. bis 8. Juni 1900. Halle, Waisenhang, 1902. The transactions of the Berlin Conference on questions of higher education.
Report of the Commissioner of Education. Washington, Government Printing Office. Chiefly used were the volumes from 1888-1901.
5. Periodicals Quoted Frequently.
American: Educational Review, Atlantic Monthly, North American Review, Forum, American Catholic Quarterly, American Ecclesiastical Review, Messenger, The Review, Woodstock Letters (published at Woodstock College, for private circulation).
English: Month, Tablet, Dublin Review, Fortnightly Review, Nineteenth Century, Contemporary Review.
German: Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum, Geschichte and deutsche Literatur and für Pädagogik (Leipsic, Teubner), Monatschrift für höhere Schulen (Berlin, Weidmann), Stimmen aus Maria-Laach (Freiburg, Herder).
French: Études (Paris, Victor Retaux).
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