Saint Louis University


M.A. Cambridge University (1968) 
Ph.D. Cambridge University (1990)
As my publication lists show, I have kept up two interests for many years: on the one hand, modern fantasy and science fiction, on the other, medieval literature, especially the earliest literature of England and Scandinavia (in the photo I am standing in front of King Harald Bluetooth's runestone at Jellinge in Jutland). These interests came together in my two much-reprinted and translated books on J.R.R. Tolkien, now supplemented by Roots and Branches, a collection of papers on the same author, mostly unpublished or reprinted from small-circulation fanzines not listed below. There were both personal and professional reasons for this concentration on Tolkien. Purely by accident, I followed in Tolkien's footsteps in several respects: as a schoolboy (we both went to King Edward's School, Birmingham), as rugby player (we both played for Old Edwardians), as a teacher at Oxford (I taught Old English for seven years at St. John's College, just overlapping with Tolkien's last years of retirement), and as Professor of English Language at Leeds (where I inherited Tolkien's chair and syllabus). The latter two items meant that I shared Tolkien's experience of "the long defeat", the withering away of our preferred subject, philology, i.e. the combined and comparative study of language and literature -but see further below! - and like Tolkien felt that it was time to appeal over the heads of the academic community to a much more receptive and wider readership - and, with the Jackson movies, a viewership as well. I was very pleased to contribute to the backup DVDs of all three Lord of the Rings films and now for the Hobbit Films as well. I was also both honored and gratified to see the collection edited by John Houghton and friends, Tolkien in the New Century: Essays in Honor of Tom Shippey (McFarland, 2014).
In recent years another interest has been the slowly-developing scholarly field of "medievalism", that is to say the ways in which the Middle Ages have been re-imagined and represented in the modern world, and I have taken particular interest in the work and influence of Tolkien's great predecessor, Jacob Grimm. The Shadow-walkers (a collection of essays on Grimm's mythology, see below) has been followed by a festschrift kindly produced for me by my former colleague Andrew Wawn, and my former students Graham Johnson and John Walter. It is entitled Constructing Nations, Reconstructing Myth, and the sixteen essays in it also focus on "the Grimmian revolution." I was further gratified to have two sessions put on in my honor by former students and colleagues at  the 2011 Leeds medieval conference, on wisdom themes and on pragmatics as applied to early literature, an initiative which may be extended into further publication.
In the past I also collaborated closely with the science fiction author Harry Harrison on two successful "alternate universe" trilogies, the "West of Eden" sequence and the "Hammer and the Cross" sequence. In retirement in Dorset I now try to keep all these various interests alive. In January 2013 I attended the conference on The Hobbit organized by Claudio Testi in Modena, and spoke on "The Hobbit: from Film to Book", and on "The Future of Tolkien Studies." Also in 2013 I developed a course of 24 videotaped lectures on "Heroes and Legends", currently being marketed by The Teaching Company; and co-taught an online course on "Philology through Tolkien" for Dr Corey Olsen's Mythgard Institute. In this latter I had the very able assistance of Nelson Goering (Oxford) and Carol Leibiger (South Dakota). We all hope that this innovative course may have successors, and be the start of a long-required reversal of "the long defeat" mentioned above. Its first successor has been a similar Mythgard course in spring 2015, this time on "Beowulf through Tolkien, and Tolkien through Beowulf", co-taught this time with Nelson Goering and Sorina Higgins.
I continue to write reviews for The Times Literary Supplement and London Review of Books, as well as other journals, and since the start of 2011 have contributed a regular column on science fiction and fantasy to The Wall Street Journal, as well as occasional reviews on medieval topics. Some recent reviews are listed in the opening section below. 
Meanwhile, I spoke at Boston University on Feb 13th, 2014, on "Heroes for our Times: Frodo and Harry", and went on to attend "Boskone", the annual convention of the New England Science Fiction Association, of which I am proud to be a lifetime member. I spoke also at the University of Chichester on Feb. 25th, on "The American Fantasy Tradition". In September 2014 I attended a conference on the fornaldarsögur in Copenhagen, organized by Matthew Driscoll, and in late November gave a keynote speech at the conference on Northern Myths, Modern Identities at the University of Groningen (publication details for the last three items appear below). In association with the Groningen conference, the Huizinga Institute for the Study of Cultural History asked me to host a master class to discuss aspects of my previous publications, focusing on the issue of forging (pun very much intended) in the creation of national epics and traditions. At the same time I gave the 2014 annual lecture for SPIN (Study Platform for Interlocking Nationalisms) on "The Development of Mythography: Contests for Control"; and finally (it was a long trip) spoke at Leeuwarden at the Frisian Festival on "Tolkien and Fairy Tales".

In February 2015 I reprised my visit to Boston U, this time speaking on "The Hidden Springs: Creativity in Fantasy"; and, on April 15 2015 I I spoke at Arizona State U's Center for Political Thought, on "The Politics of Fantasy: what we can learn from hobbits". In September 2015 I will be speaking in Granada at the conference of SELIM, on the development of Beowulf criticism. 

Other and more extensive publications continue to gestate, a couple of them seemingly close to birth. But I hesitate to tempt fortune by mentioning them here!

"The Well-Spoken Saint: Speech and Script in the Old English Andreas", in Communicative Spaces, Variation Contact and Change: Papers presented to Ursula Schaefer, ed. Claudia Lange, Beatrix Weber and Göran Wolf, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2012, 39-53.

"Germania, German(ic), and the Dangerous Applications of Philology", in Germania Remembered 1500-2009: Commemorating and Inventing a Germanic Past, ed. Christina Lee and Nicola McLelland, AMRTS: Tempe, AZ, 2013, xiii-xxv.

"Foreword" to Revisiting the Poetic Edda: Essays on Old Norse Heroic Legend, ed. Paul Acker and Carolyne Larrington, New York: Routledge, 2013, xiii-xix.

"Writing into the Gap: Tolkien's Reconstruction of the Legends of Sigurd and Gudrún", in Revisiting the Poetic Edda above, 238-57

"The Way of the Warrior", rev of British Museum (book of the exhibition) Vikings: life and legend and Philip Parker, The Northmen's Fury, LRB April 3, 2014, 36-7

"Goths and Romans in Tolkien's Imagination", in The Forest and the City, ed. Helen C. O'Briain and Gerard Hynes, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2014, 19-32

"Jack Vance: il ottimo fabbro", in From Peterborough to Faery: the poetics and mechanics of secondary world, essays in honor of Allan G. Turner's 65th birthday, ed. Thomas Honegger and Dirk Vanderbeke, Zurich and Bern: Walking Tree Press, 2014, 57-73
"Tolkien as Editor", in A Companion to J R R Tolkien, ed. Stuart Lee, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 41-55

"Modernity", in Medievalism: Key Critical Terms, ed. Richard Utz and Elizabeth Emery, Woodbridge: Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2014, 149-56

"Names in Beowulf and Anglo-Saxon England", in The Dating of Beowulf: A Reassessment, ed. Leonard Neidorf, Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2014, 58-78

"The American Fantasy tradition", in Gramarye: Journal of the Sussex Centre for Folklore, Fairy Tales and Fantasy 6 (Winter 2014), 18-33

"The Viking Makeover", rev of Anders Winroth, The Age of the Vikings, Wall St Journal 21 Nov. 2014

"Away with the Learning of Clerks", rev of Juliet Barker, 1381: The Year of the Peasants' Revolt, Books & Culture 21/2, March/April 2015, 8

"Troll-Descended Bruisers", rev of William I Miller, "Why is Your Axe Bloody?": A Reading of Njals Saga, London Review of Books June 22 2015

"Germanic Mythology", entry for ERNIE (Encyclopedia of Romantic Nationalism in Europe), now online at

"The Lewis Diaries: Lewis and the English Faculty in the 1920s", in Essays and memoirs from the C.S. Lewis Society, ed. Roger White, Judith Wolfe and Brendan Wolfe, OUP (New York), forthcoming 2015

"The fornaldarsögur in modern fantasy writing", forthcoming in a volume ed. Matthew J. Driscoll, as part of the project "Stories for All Time"

"Heirs of Lönnrot: from Longfellow to Tolkien", forthcoming in Northern Myths, Modern Identities, ed. Simon Halink, Leiden: Brill


"Heroes and Legends: the Most Influential Characters of Literature": a course of 24 lectures, available as audio only or DVD from The Teaching Company

"Philology through Tolkien": a course of 24 lectures + 12 classes, co-taught with Nelson Goering (Oxford) and Carol Leibiger (S. Dakota), available from The Mythgard Institute

"Beowulf through Tolkien and Tolkien through Beowulf", a course of 24 lectures and 12 classes, co-taught with Nelson Goering and Sorina Higgins, also available from the Mythgard Institute

Roots and Branches: Selected Papers on Tolkien (Zurich and Bern Walking Tree Press, 2007). 


J. R. R. Tolkien: Author of the Century (London: Harper Collins, 2000; Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 2001). [Spanish, German, Italian and Polish translations.]

The Road to Middle-earth (London: Allen & Unwin, 1982; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983. 2nd, 3rd and 4th successively enlarged editions from Houghton Mifflin, 2003, and HarperCollins, 1993, 2004). [Spanish, Polish, Russian, Italian, and German translations.] 

Beowulf. Arnold's Studies in English Literature series (London, 1978). [A section from this is reprinted in Modern Critical Interpretations: Beowulf, ed. Harold Bloom (New Haven: Chelsea House, 1988), 33-49. The whole work was translated into Japanese in 1992.]

Poems of Wisdom and Learning in Old English, (Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, Ltd., 1976; 2nd edition, 1977).

Old English Verse (London: Hutchinson's, 1972). [A section of this is reprinted in Interpretations of Beowulf, ed. R.D. Fulk (Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press, 1991), 194-205.]


Editor, The Shadow-walkers: Jacob Grimm's Mythology of the Monstrous (Tempe, AZ: MRTS, and Turnhout: Brepols, 2005).

Co-editor (with Martin Arnold), Correspondences: Medievalism in Scholarship and the Arts, Studies in Medievalism XIV, (Woodbridge: Boydell, and Brewer, 2005).

Co-editor (with Martin Arnold), Film and Fiction: Reviewing the Middle Ages, Studies in Medievalism XII, (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2002).

Co-editor (with Martin Arnold), Appropriating the Middle Ages: Scholarship, Politics, Fraud, Studies in Medievalism XI, (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2001).

Co-editor (with Richard Utz), Medievalism in the Modern World: Essays in Honour of Leslie Workman (Brepols: Turnhout, l998).

Co-editor (with Andreas Haarder), The Critical Heritage: Beowulf (London: Routledge, l998).  

Editor, The Oxford Book of Fantasy Stories (London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).

Co-editor (with George Slusser), Fiction 2000: Cyberpunk and the Future of Narrative, (Athens, GA, and London: University of Georgia Press, 1993).

Editor, The Oxford Book of Science Fiction Stories (London and New York: Oxford University Press, l992).

Editor, Fictional Space: Essays on Contemporary Science Fiction (Oxford: Blackwell, l991).


"Family Drama in the Middle English Breton Lays", in "Li premerains vers": Essays in Honor of Keith Busby. Ed. Catherine M. Jones and Logan E. Whalen. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2011, 417-31.

"Hrolfs saga Kraka and the Legend of Lejre", in Martin Arnold and Alison Finlay, eds., Making History: Studies in the Fornaldarsögur (London: Viking Society, 2011), 17-32

"Foreword" to Beowulf and other Old English Poems, ed. and trans. Craig Williamson. Philadelphia: U Pennsylvania Press, 2011, ix-xxvi.
"Proverbs and Proverbiousness in Hrafnkels saga Freysgoða", in The Hero Recovered: Essays on Medieval Heroism in Honor of George Clark, ed. James Weldon and Robin Waugh (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2010) , 127-41.

"The Fall of King Hæthcyn, or Mimesis 4A: the chapter Auerbach never wrote", in On the Aesthetics of Beowulf and other Old English Poems, ed. John Hill (Toronto: U Toronto Press, 2010), 247-65

"Klaeber's Beowulf Eighty Years On: A Triumph for a Triumvirate", Journal of English and Germanic Philology (July 2009), 360-76.

"Afterword" to Beowulf and Lejre, ed. John D. Niles (Tempe, AZ: MRTS, 2007), 469-79.

"Chaucer", in Literary Genius, ed. Joseph Epstein (Paul Dry Books: Philadephia, 2007), 9-15.

"The Merov(ich)ingian Again: damnatio memoriae and the usus scholarum," in Latin Learning and English Lore: essays in honor of Michael Lapidge, ed. Andy Orchard (Toronto: U Toronto Press, 2005), 389-406.

"Bilingualism and Betrayal in Chaucer's 'Summoner's Tale'," in Speaking in the Medieval World, ed. Jean Godsall-Myers (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003),  125-44.

"Wicked Queens and Cousin Strategies in Beowulf and Elsewhere," in the electronic journal Heroic Age, Issue 5 (Summer/Autumn 2001).

"Grim Word-Play: Wisdom and Folly in Anglo-Saxon Humor," in Humour in Anglo-Saxon Literature, ed. Jonathan Wilcox (Cambridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000), 33-48.

"The Tale of Gamelyn: Class Conflict and the Embarrassments of Genre," in Essays in Medieval Popular Romance, ed. Ad Putter and Jane Gilbert (London: Longman, 2000), 78-96.

"BIbiliophobia: Hatred of the Book in the Middle Ages," Birkbeck College, University of London. [The printed version of the two Matthews lectures given in 1999. One is on Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the other on poems from Harley MS 2253.]

"Beowulf: Structure and Unity" in A Beowulf Handbook, ed. Robert Bjork and John D. Niles (Lincoln, Neb.: U Nebraska Press, l997), 149-74.

"Chaucer's Arithmetical Mentality and The Book of the Duchess," Chaucer Review 31 (1996), 178-95.

"Speech and the Unspoken" in Hamthismal. In Prosody and Poetics in the Early Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of C.B. Hieatt, ed. M. S. Toswell (Toronto: U. Toronto Press, 1995), 180-96.

"Local Patriotism and the Early Interpretation of Beowulf." In Traditions and Innovations: Papers Presented to Andreas Haader, ed. Flemming Andersen and Lars Ole Sauerberg, (Odense: U. of Odense Press, 1994), 303-19.

"The Wanderer and The Seafarer as Wisdom Poetry." In Companion to Old English Poetry, ed. Henk Aertsen and Rolf H. Bremmer, Jr. (Amsterdam: Vrije Universitet Press, 1994), 145-58.

"Miscomprehension and Re-Interpretation in Old and Early Middle English Proverb Collections," ScriptOralia 58 (1994) 293-311 [also Text und Zeittiefe, ed. Hildegard F.C. Tristram (Tübingen: Narr].

"Recent Writing in Old English," Aestel 1 (l993): 1-24.

"Principles of Conversation in Beowulfian Speech." In Techniques of Description: A Festschrift for Malcolm Coulthard, ed. John M. Sinclair et al. (London and New York: Routledge, 1993), 109-26.
"Old English Poetry: the Prospects for Literary History." In Proceedings of the Second International Conference of SELIM (Spanish Society for English Medieval Language and Literature), ed. Antonio Leon Sendra (Cordoba: SELIM, l993), 164-79. Translated into Spanish by Patricia Villasenor Cuspinera as "Poesía en inglés antiquo: prospectos de historia literaria," Acta Poetica (Mexico) 16 (1995): 183-214.

"Winchester in the Anglo-Saxon Period and After." In Winchester: History and Literature, ed. Simon Barker (Winchester: King Alfred's College, l992), 1-21.

"Breton Lais and Modern Fantasies." In Studies in Medieval English Romance, ed. D. S. Brewer (Cambridge: Brewer, 1988), 69-91.

"Boar and Badger: an Old English Heroic Antithesis?" Leeds Studies in English 16 (1985): 220-39.

"A Missing Army: Some Doubts about the Alfredian Chronicle." In Geardagum 4 (1982): 41-55 [now revised and reprinted in Anglo-Saxon 1 (2007): 219-38].

"Maxims in O.E. Narrative: Literary Art or Traditional Wisdom?" In Oral Tradition, Literary Tradition: a Symposium, ed. Andreas Haarder (Odense: University of Odense Press, 1982), 51-69.

"Approaches to Truth in Old English Poetry." University of Leeds Review 25 (1982): 171-89.

"Wealth and Wisdom in King Alfred's Preface to the Pastoral Care." English Historical Review 94 (1979): 346-55.

"The Uses of Chivalry: Erec and Gawain." Modern Language Review 66 (1971): 241-50.
"Listening to the Nightingale." Comparative Literature 22 (1970): 46-60.

"The Fairy Tale Structure of Beowulf." Notes and Queries 16 (1969): 2-11.
"Philological Triumphs, Ideological Failures", in Linguistics, Ideology and the Discourse of Linguistic Nationalism, ed. Ursula Schaefer, Göran Wolf and Claudia Lange (Berlin, Peter Lang, 2010). 

"Kemble, Beowulf, and the Schleswig-Holstein question", in The Kemble Lectures on Anglo-Saxon Studies, 2005-8, ed. Alice Jorgensen et al, for 2007 (Dublin, School of English, Trinity College, 2009), 64-80.

"El Cid: Defeat of the Crescentade", in Hollywood and the Holy Land, ed. Nick Haydock and Ed Risden (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009).

"Historical Fiction and the Post-Imperial Arthur", in A Companion to Arthurian Literature, ed. Helen Fulton (Maldon, MA and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 449-62.

"The Case of Beowulf", in Dirk Van Hulle and Joep Leerssen, eds., Editing the Nation's Memory: Textual Scholarship and Nation-Building in 19th-Century Europe, European Studies 26 (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2008), 223-39.

"Medievalisms and why they matter", in Defining Medievalism(s), ed. Karl Fugelso, Studies in Medievalism XVII (Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2008), 45-54.

"Fuqua's King Arthur: More Myth-making in America," Exemplaria 19/2 (Summer 2007), 310-26 [see also Exemplaria web-cluster on medieval movies].

"Response to three papers on 'Philology, whence and whither?' from Kalamazoo 2002", Heroic Age (online journal), issue 11 (October 2007).

"A Revolution Reconsidered: Mythography and Mythology in the Nineteenth Century", in The Shadow-walkers (see Edited Books above), 1-28.

"Alias Oves Habeo: the Elves as a Category Problem", in The Shadow-walkers, 157-88.

"Afterword: A Chair, a Sock, and Language", in The Shadow-walkers, 379-88.

"Rewriting the Core: Transformations of the Fairy-Tale in Modern Feminist Writing," in A Companion to the Fairy-Tale, ed. Anna Chaudhri and Hilda Ellis-Davidson (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2003), 249-73.

"Grimm's Law: how one man revolutionised the humanities," Times Literary Supplement, Nov. 7th 2003, 14-15.

"The Undeveloped Image: Anglo-Saxon in Popular Consciousness from Turner to Tolkien," in Literary Appropriations of the Anglo-Saxons from the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century, ed. Donald Scragg and Carole Weinberg (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000), 215-36.

"`The Death-Song of Ragnar Lodbrog': A Study in Sensibilities" in Medievalism in the Modern World (see Edited Books above), 155-72.

"Medievalism in the Modern World: Introductory Perspectives," co-authored Richard Utz and T. A. Shippey, in Medievalism in the Modern World (see Edited Books above), 1-13.

"Robin Hood: a Legend in Text, Film and Popular Consciousness," ScriptOralia 84 (1996), 409-23 [also (Re)Oralisierung, ed. Hildegard F. C. Tristram (Tübingen: Narr)].

"Goths and Huns: the Rediscovery of the Northern Cultures in the Nineteenth Century." In The Medieval Legacy: A Symposium, ed. Andreas Haarder (Odense: University of Odense Press, 1982), 51-69.


[A number of papers on Tolkien not listed here have been reprinted in Roots and Branches, see BOOKS section above.]

"Trees, Chainsaws, and Visions of Paradise in Tolkien", trans. as "Arbres, tronçonneuses, et visions du paradis" in L'Arc et le Heaume, Fretin: Association Tolkiendil, 2012, 59-73, and on the Tolkiendil website

"The ancestors of the hobbits: strange creatures in English folklore", in Lembas-extra 2011, ed. Cecile van Zon (Tolkien Genootschap Unquendor), 97-106

Introduction: Why Source Criticism?", in Tolkien and the Study of his Sources, ed. Jason Fisher, Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2011, 7-16

"The Ransom Trilogy and the Discovery of Myth", in The Cambridge Companion to C.S. Lewis, ed. Rob McSwain and Michael Ward (Cambridge: CUP, 2010), 237-50

"Tolkien e la tessitura degli eventi: La filosofia della provvidenza ne ‘Il signore degli annelli'", L' Osservatore Romano, 27 May 2010, 5

"Writing into the Gap" (review article on Tolkien's Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún, Tolkien Studies 7 (2010), 291-324

"Two Works on Beowulf, One Accepted, One Ignored: but did we get it right?", available online in Scholars' Forum, July 2010

"Tolkien's development as a writer of alliterative poetry in modern English", in Lembas-extra 2009: Tolkien in Poetry and Song, ed. Cecile van Zon. Leiden: Tolkien Genootschap Unquendor, 2009, 64-75. [Updated and reprinted in Tolkien's Poetry, ed Julian Eilmann and Allan Turner, Walking Tree Press, 2013, 11-28]

"Introduction" to Tolkien, Tales from the Perilous Realm (London: HarperCollins, 2008), ix-xxviii.

" ‘A Fund of Wise Sayings': Proverbiality in Tolkien," in The Ring Goes Ever On: Proceedings of the Tolkien 2005 Conference: 50 Years of The Lord of the Rings, ed. Sarah Wells (Coventry: Tolkien Society, 2008), 2 vols, I: 279-286.

"Screwtape and the Philological Arm: Lewis on Verbicide", in Truths Breathed through Silver: the Moral and Mythopoeic Legacy of the Inklings, ed. Jonathan Himes et al (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2008), 110-22.

"Liminality and the Everyday in Lilith", in Lilith in a New Light, ed. Lucas D. Harriman (Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland, 2008), 15-20.

"Imagined Cathedrals: Retelling Myth in the Twentieth Century", in Myth in North-west Europe, ed. Stephen Glosecki (Tempe, AZ: MRTS, 2007), 307-32.

"New Learning and New Ignorance: Magia, Goeteia and the Inklings", in Myth and Magic: Art According to the Inklings, ed. Eduardo Segura and Thomas Honegger (Zurich and Bern: Walking Tree Press, 2007), 21-46.

Fourteen entries in The Tolkien Encyclopedia, ed. Michael C. Drout (London and New York: Routledge, 2007) [on Alliterative verse by Tolkien; John Buchan; Cruces in medieval literature; Ylfe, Alfar, Elves; Germanic mythology; Haigh's Glossary of the Huddersfield Dialect; T's influence on 20th century literature; C.S. Lewis; The Owl and the Nightingale; Uncollected Poems; Poems by T in other languages [asterisk-poems]; Old Norse language; Scholars of medieval literature; The Adventures of Tom Bombadil].

"Tolkien, medievalism, and the philological tradition", in Bells Chiming from the Past: Cultural and Linguistic Studies on Early English, ed. Isabel Moskowich-Spiegel and Begona Crespo-Garcia, Costerus NS 174 (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2007), 265-79.

"History in Words: Tolkien's Ruling Passion," in The Lord of the Rings 1954-2004: Scholarship in Honor of Richard E. Blackwelder, ed. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (Milwaukee: Marquette UP, 2006), 25-39.

"Tolkien and the Appeal of the Pagan: Edda and Kalevala," in Tolkien and the Invention of Myth, ed. Jane Chance (Louisville: UP Kentucky, 2004), 145-61.

"Light-elves, Dark-elves, and Others: Tolkien's Elvish Problem," in Tolkien Studies 1 (2004), 1-15.

"Another Road to Middle-earth: Jackson's Movie Trilogy," in Understanding the Lord of the Rings: the best of Tolkien criticism, ed Rose A. Zimbardo and Neil D. Isaacs (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003), 233-54.

"Allegory versus Bounce: Tolkien's Smith of Wootton Major," Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts 12/2 (2001), 186-200 [an exchange with Verlyn Flieger: TAS section 191-200.]

"Fantasy," in The Good Fiction Guide, ed. Jane Rogers (Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 2001), 43-6 [+10-12 biographical entries].

"Orcs, Wraiths, Wights: Tolkien's Images of Evil", in J.R.R. Tolkien and his Literary Resonances: views of Middle-earth, ed. George Clark and Dan Timmons (Westport, Conn. and London: Greenwood, 2000), 183-98.

"Grimm, Grundtvig, Tolkien: Nationalisms and the Invention of Mythologies," in The Ways of Creative Mythologies: Imagined Worlds and their Makers, ed. Maria Kuteeva (Telford: The Tolkien Society, 1997), 7-17.

"Tolkien and the Gawain-poet" in Proceedings of the J. R.R.Tolkien Centenary Conference, l992 [simultaneously published as Mythlore 80 (1995) and Mallorn 30 (1995)], ed. Patricia Reynolds and Glen H. Goodknight (Milton Keynes and Altadena, CA: Mythopoeic Press, l995), 213-20.

"Tolkien as a PostWar Writer." In Scholarship and Fantasy: The Tolkien Phenomenon, ed. Keith J. Battarbee (Turku, Finland: U. of Turku Press, l993), 217-36.

Introduction to William Morris, The Wood Beyond the World (London: Oxford UP, 1980).

"Creation from Philology in The Lord of the Rings." In J.R.R. Tolkien, Scholar and Story-Teller: Essays in Memoriam, ed. M. Salu and R.T. Farrell (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1979), 286-316.

"Thresholds, Polders and Crosshatches in The Merlin Codex", in The Mythic Fantasy of Robert Holdstock: Critical Essays on his Fiction, ed. Donald E.Morse and Kalman Matolcsy, Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2011, 165-76

"Introduction" to Flights of Eagles: Selected Fiction of James Blish, Vol. 2, ed James A. Mann (Framingham, MA: NESFA Press, 2009), 9-28.

"Hard Reading: the Challenges of Science Fiction," in A Companion to Science Fiction, ed. David Seed, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005), 11-26.

"Kingsley Amis's Science Fiction and the Problems of Genre," in Essays on Classic and Iconoclastic Alternate Science Fiction, ed Edgar Chapman and Carl Yoke (Lewison, NY: Mellen).

"Literary Gatekeepers and the Fabril Tradition," in Science Fiction: Canonization, Marginalization and the Academy, ed. Gary Westfahl and George Slusser (Westport, Conn. and London: Greenwood, 2001), 7-23.

"Starship Troopers, Galactic Heroes, Mercenary Princes: the Military and its Discontents in Science Fiction, " in Histories of the Future: Studies in Fact, Fantasy and Science Fiction, ed. Alan Sandison and Robert Dingley, (New York: Palgrave, 2000), 168-83.

"`People are Plastic': Jack Vance and the Dilemma of Cultural Relativism," in Jack Vance: Critical Appreciations and a Bibliography, ed. Arthur Cunningham (London: British Library Publications, 2000), 71-88.

"Vorwort" [in German] to Anthony Burgess, Clockwork Orange [a new German translation] (Munich: Heyne Verlag, 2000), 5-14.

"Alternate Historians: Newt, Kingers, Harry, and Me, " Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts (1997), 15-33.
"Skeptical Speculation and Back to Methuselah in Shaw and Science Fiction, ed. Milton T. Wolf [Shaw 17 (1997)], 199-213.

"The Critique of America in Contemporary Science Fiction." Foundation 61 (1994): 36-49.

"Semiotic Ghosts and Ghostliness in the Work of Bruce Sterling." In Fiction 2000: Cyberpunk and the Future of Narrative (see Edited Books above), 208-20.

"The Fall of America in Science Fiction." In Fictional Space: Essays on Contemporary Science Fiction (see Edited Books above), 96-127.
"Learning to Read Science Fiction." In Fictional Space (see above), 1-35. [Translated into Danish by Niels Dalgaard as "At laere for at laese science fiction," Proxima 57 (1992): 18-33].; and into Swedish by Jerry Määttä in Brott, kärlek, främmande världar: Texter om populärlitteratur ("Crime, Love, and Strange [New] Worlds: Texts on Popular Fiction"), ed. Jerry Määttä and Dag Hedman (Lund: Studentlitteratur), forthcoming 2014.]"

"Variations on Newspeak: the Open Question of Nineteen Eighty-Four." In Storm Warnings, ed. George Slusser et al. (Edwardsville: Southern Illinois UP, 1987), 172-93.

"The Cold War in Science Fiction, 1940-60." In Science Fiction: a Critical Guide, ed. P. Parrinder (London: Longman, 1979), 90-109.
"The Magic Art and the Evolution of Words." Mosaic 10 (1977): 148-63.

"The Golden Bough and the Incorporation of Magic." Foundation 12 (1977): 119-34.

"Science Fiction and the Idea of History." Foundation 4 (1973): 4-20. [Translated into French as "L'Histoire dans la science fiction" in Change, ed. Gerard Klein and Daniel Riche (Paris, 1981)].

"Breaking a Culture: a theme in science fiction", Alta: the University of Birmingham Review 9 (1969), 123-32.


"Rudyard Kipling", in Cahier Calin: Makers of the Middle Ages. Essays in Honor of William Calin. Ed. Richard Utz and Elizabeth Emery. Print: Kalamazoo, MI: Studies in Medievalism, 2011. Also online.

"The Protean Allegory of Matter in The Two Gentlemen of Verona", Allegorica: Traditions and Infuences in Medieval and Early Modern Literature (in memory of Thomas Moisan) 27 (2011): 20-30

"The Master-Man Pairing in Modern British Popular Literature", in Paare und Paarungen: festschrift Werner Wunderlich, ed Ulrich Müller and Margarete Springeth (Stuttgart: Akademischer Verlag, 2004), 354-61.

"Germanen, Deutsche, Teutonen in englischsprachiger Geistesgeschichte," in Zur Geschichte der Gleichung "germanisch / deutsch", ed Heinrich Beck et al (Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 2004), 325-41.

"Framing and Distancing in Kipling's 'The Man who would be King.'" Journal of Narrative Technique 2 (1972): 75-87. (Co-authored with Mick Short)

"Borrowing and Independence in Kipling's 'Muhammad Din.'" Modern Language Review 67 (1972): 264-70.

"Commentary on two poems from Scientific American by Updike and Auden", Alta: The University of Birmingham Review 11 (1970), 284-89.

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