Saint Louis University

Introductory Statement

To better engage our students and to better meet a variety of learning needs, Saint Louis University is pleased to offer Tegrity, lecture capture software that records audio, presentation slides, and other class content. Lecture capture (LC) can be a powerful tool in the learning process; it offers an exciting opportunity to deliver course content in new ways and/or to make content available for students after class. While it can be of tremendous value, however, it also comes with the responsibility to make good decisions about what to capture and how to make it available to others.

The following guidelines answer common questions, offer tips and strategies for best practices, and provide links to University policies and considerations about privacy and property issues that can arise with lecture capture.

Topics Covered:
General FAQs about Lecture Capture at SLU
Faculty Considerations
Student Considerations

 


Resources
Tips for Teaching with Lecture Capture
References / For Further Research

General FAQs about Lecture Capture at SLU

1. What is lecture capture?
2. What tool is used for lecture capture at SLU?
3. How can lecture capture benefit students?
4. How do students use lecture capture?
5. How can lecture capture benefit faculty?
6. How do faculty use lecture capture?
7. What conditions make LC most useful?
8. What student privacy considerations are there with lecture capture?
9. What copyright considerations are there with lecture capture?
10. Can students duplicate or redistribute recorded lectures?
11. Where are recorded files stored?
12. Are the files stored at Tegrity secure?  

1. What is lecture capture?

  • Lecture capture is just what it sounds like--a way to capture or record (full or partial) lectures. With most lecture capture tools, lectures can be pre-recorded and distributed to students ahead of time, or they can be captured during a live class session and made available for review afterward.
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2. What tool is used for lecture capture at SLU?
3. How can lecture capture benefit students?
  • Lecture capture (LC) has been shown to have multiple benefits for student learning. Having a recorded lecture offers students the ability to review the material at their own pace for better understanding. (This can be particularly helpful for international and other multilingual students and students with disabilities.) This self-paced attribute also provides flexibility in their note-taking. The recordings provide additional resources that complement (not replace) the classroom experience by giving opportunities to review demonstrations, previous lectures, and guest speakers. The most obvious benefit is that students who miss the lecture in class have the opportunity to catch up on the material. A less mainstream, but growing, option for LC is that instructors have the ability to record lectures outside of the classroom, and assign them as homework. Then, class time is used for more hands-on work, more student-instructor interaction, more student peer mentoring, and other more interactive problem solving processes (Zhu, Bergom, 2010). An initial survey of SLU faculty suggests that students' exam scores have improved in classes where Tegrity has been used for review of course content.
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4. How do students use lecture capture?
  • LC works best as a supplement to traditional instruction, not a replacement for it. Students generally use the LC recordings to review material, complete homework, and review for exams and tests. This is especially useful for technical courses, like chemistry and biology, where significant amounts of detailed information are presented during each class lecture. (Fernandez, Simo, Sallian, 2009)
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5. How can lecture capture benefit faculty?
  • Faculty also benefit from lecture capture in a variety of ways. Here are just a few: faculty can save time by presenting a lecture only once, with the ability to use it multiple times; students can be directed back to the recorded lecture, if they miss class or have clarification questions; and (with Tegrity) faculty can rely on student notations during the lectures to better understand where there were common points of confusion or questions. Additionally, faculty can create mini-lectures of supplemental content, which can be accessed by only those students who most need it and opt to use it.
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6. How do faculty use lecture capture?
  • There are no hard-and-fast rules about how instructors use lecture capture. The usual approach is to use the classroom system (in our case, Tegrity) to record the instructor's PowerPoint slides (or any other content displayed on the instructor's computer) and to record the actual lecture audio. Because most students use LC to review their notes and for exams, it is good practice for the instructor to add annotations and notes to a LC recording after it has been recorded if the software allows it. Some instructors record their lectures outside of the classroom, then require the students to view/listen to the recorded lecture as homework, in preparation for the next class meeting. Then, during class time, students work problems and examples, while the instructor is present to help troubleshoot. This increasingly more common approach is sometimes referred to as "classroom flipping," since the typical content of a class period is "flipped" to homework, and homework (e.g., applied problems, case studies, etc.) is brought into the class period. This option is particularly welcome for instructors who wish to build more interactive learning into their classes.
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7. What conditions make LC most useful?
  • While recording and offering only audio versions of lectures are shown to be useful, the most benefit comes when instructors are able to record their presentation (PowerPoint, etc., or document camera) synced with the audio. Providing video of the instructor presenting the material, or having an image in its place, did not demonstrate any significant improvements in student performance or engagement. (Petherbridge, 2010)
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8. What student privacy considerations are there with lecture capture?
  • It depends on the situation. The same privacy considerations that would apply in a brick and mortar classroom, particularly to student work, apply to a lecture capture broadcast. Tegrity is primarily intended to extend accessibility of the lecture experience to students who have registered for a specific course, for a specific period of time (e.g., semester). If Tegrity is used to disseminate student presentations, small group discussions, or seminar classes beyond a defined course, faculty members will be responsible for obtaining student consent prior to distribution. Click here for a consent form. Faculty members are not required to obtain student consent when broadcasting their own image and content; when no student participation is recorded; or when incidental student participation is recorded and the broadcast is directed to a defined course.
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9. What copyright considerations are there with lecture capture?
  • Faculty, staff, and students are responsible for observing copyright law including educational fair use guidelines, obtaining appropriate permission from the copyright holder, and following University policies when incorporating third party content into a Tegrity recording. Captured lectures that contain short excerpts from a third party may be eligible for dissemination without permission subject to educational fair use guidelines. For more detail, please see the University's Copyright Policy here.
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10. Can students duplicate or redistribute recorded lectures?
  • No. In all cases, duplication or redistribution by students is prohibited. Students may not copy or redistribute lecture capture materials without the express, written permission of the course instructor. Unauthorized duplication or dissemination of lecture capture materials may violate federal or state law and University policy. Violation of University policy may result in disciplinary action.
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11. Where are recorded files stored?
  • Lectures recorded through Tegrity are stored in the Tegrity cloud (Tegrity's servers) but can be downloaded in multiple formats at the discretion of the instructor. Instructors and students can access these files either by going directly to Tegrity (https://slu.tegrity.com) or by going through Blackboard Learn.
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12. Are the files stored at Tegrity secure?
  • Tegrity is a cloud based service. Recorded lectures are stored on Tegrity's secure servers. Tegrity's default setting limits access of captured content to those individuals with appropriate access to the course in Blackboard Learn. Faculty have the option of extending access.
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Faculty Considerations

1. Who owns my recorded lectures?
2. Who has access to my recorded lectures?
3. What can the University do with my recorded lectures?
4. How do I decide whether or not to record my lectures?
5. What formats are available for recording lectures?
6. If I make recordings available in a "streaming" version only, what does this mean for students?
7. What if students want lectures to be downloadable?
8. How long are recordings stored?
9. What is the SLU's retention policy for maintaining previously recorded content in Tegrity?
10. Can I keep recorded lectures for a future class?
11. What do I need to do to preserve recorded lectures for use in a future semester?
12. How do I move captured content to my Private Course, so that it is not deleted as part of the regular file clean-up?
13. What if I have captured student comments during a recorded lecture? Can I still use it in a future semester?
14. Should I just turn on the recorder and record everything?
15. What happens if I accidentally record a confidential conversation with a student?
16. Will my students stop coming to class if I make lectures available?
17. Do students actually listen to recorded lectures?
18. Can I review recorded lectures in order to assess students' participation and class contributions?
19. If I want to include a statement on my syllabus about lecture capture, what should it say?

1. Who owns my recorded lectures?

2. Who has access to my recorded lectures?

  • By default, captured content is only available to students enrolled in the course where the content is available. Instructors can elect to extend access as appropriate. If the instructor chooses to make the captures for a course available in different downloadable formats, the content could then be shared with other users as well. Other access that is consistent with your department or college policies may apply.
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3. What can the University do with my recorded lectures?

  • You (as instructor), not the University, make recorded lectures available to your students (and perhaps others). The University will not distribute your lectures to anyone else, though it will eventually remove them from the Tegrity server, according to the retention policy as described below.
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4. How do I decide whether or not to record my lectures?

  • In general, faculty decide when and how to record lectures, based on their own preferences, course goals, etc. (See below for pedagogical tips to help with this decision.) In some cases a department or program may require the use of LC (e.g., large, multi-section courses with standardized curricula). Such decisions are made at the unit level. If you think you may be required to use LC, check with your department Chair or program Director.
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5. What formats are available for recording lectures?

  • You can make recordings accessible to students in several formats. The default recording format for Tegrity at SLU is Tegrity's streaming file format based upon Windows Media Server. This format is for streaming use only (that is, it is not downloadable to other devices). If you choose, you may make lectures available in downloadable formats, such as MP3 (audio only) or M4V (audio and presentation - MP4). This would give students the ability to download your lectures and listen to them on their iPods or other media players. Making files downloadable gives students the most flexibility for accessing and reviewing them. However, this option also means instructors cannot control who can view or access them later, since students would have the ability to re-post those files (even inadvertently) or share them elsewhere.
    Note: if you opt to make files downloadable, you must ensure that the files do not contain protected material, such as copyrighted images, audio files, etc.; see above for more information on copyrighted considerations for lecture capture.
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6. If I make recordings available in a "streaming" version only, what does this mean for students?

  • It means they will only be able to access the recordings with a web browser by accessing Blackboard Learn, by logging directly into Tegrity, or by using the Tegrity app for iOS or Android devices. They will not be able to download them to other audio/media devices. For instructors who wish to control access to recorded lectures -- or who include copyrighted images, etc. in their lecture slides -- this option is the best way to ensure that students cannot re-post or otherwise share the recordings.
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7. What if students want lectures to be downloadable?

  • Students often do prefer to have downloadable files, and this is perfectly fine, provided that you are comfortable sharing the materials in this way. However, if your recorded lectures contain copyrighted or other protected material, files should not be made available for downloading without permission. Without permission, faculty should only select the streaming file format (Tegrity's default setting).
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8. How long are recordings stored?

  • Tegrity recordings that are associated with Banner courses are stored for two terms after the course was held. To keep recordings longer than that, faculty must move them into their Private Course into the Tegrity system. Recordings stored in an instructor's Private Course are stored indefinitely, however instructors are asked to manage the content in their Private Course appropriately. Please see the retention policy below for more details.
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9. What is the SLU's retention policy for maintaining previously recorded content in Tegrity?

The University wants to ensure that faculty members have the opportunity to retain any content they have captured using Tegrity that they feel has potential future value for re-use. However, due to licensing and storage costs, the University must have a process for clearing out unwanted content, such as lectures that were captured for the sole purpose of assisting students in a specific course to study for a specific exam. Therefore, in order to balance these goals, retention schedules have been created for the deletion of Tegrity recordings.

Prior to any deletion, ITS will notify the instructor(s) of impacted courses so they have time to move any content that they would like to retain to their Private Course in the Tegrity system. (See "How do I move captured content to my Private Course") for guidance on moving content into a Private Course.)

Tegrity Recording Retention Schedules

Below are the separate schedules for deletion of recordings from: all Blackboard courses, courses with School of Medicine term codes, and courses with Continuing Education term codes. The deletions will take place approximately four weeks after the start of the term listed in the schedules.

Please note that faculty development or organization/department courses in Tegrity are not impacted by this retention cycle; only Tegrity recordings associated with Banner courses are deleted. ITS will not delete captured content that is in an instructor's Private Course in Tegrity or in a course that is not associated with a course in Banner.

Default Tegrity Recording Deletion Schedule

Tegrity recordings remain on the server for two terms after the end of the term in which the course was held.*


Term the Course Was Held Term the Recordings Will Be Deleted from Tegrity
Summer 2013 Fall 2014
Fall 2013 Fall 2014
Spring 2014 Spring 2015
Summer 2014 Fall 2015
Fall 2014 Fall 2016


* Tegrity recording deletions will not occur during the Summer terms while many faculty are out.


School of Medicine (SOM)
Recording Deletion Schedule for SOM Terms

SOM Tegrity recordings remain on the server for the current and prior Academic Year.


Academic Year the Course Was Held Term the Recordings Will Be Deleted from Tegrity
SOM 2012-2013
Fall 2014
SOM 2013-2014
Fall 2015
SOM 2014-2015
Fall 2016
SOM 2015-2016
Fall 2017

 

Continuing Education (CEU)
Recording Deletion Schedule for CEU Terms

CEU Tegrity recordings remain on the server for the current and prior Academic Year.


Academic Year the Course Was Held Term the Recordings Will Be Deleted from Tegrity
CEU 2012-2013
Fall 2014
CEU 2013-2014
Fall 2015
CEU 2014-2015
Fall 2016
CEU 2015-2016
Fall 2017


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10. Can I keep recorded lectures for a future class?

  • Yes. Tegrity is built specifically to accommodate the future re-use of course lecture materials, and this is one of the many virtues of lecture capture. However, there are many pedagogical considerations, as well as some student privacy considerations. Pedagogically speaking, simply re-using the same lectures over and over might not be possible, particularly if incidental student comments and questions are captured, as they may not be appropriate for future course contexts. For student privacy considerations, lectures that are captured live and include student presentations, small group discussions, and/or seminar classes, need student consent. (Click here for a consent form.) (See below for additional pedagogical considerations.) Faculty members are not required to obtain student consent when re-broadcasting their own image and content, or when incidental or no student participation is recorded during a lecture.
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11. What do I need to do to preserve recorded lectures for use in a future semester?

  • To retain recorded lectures for use in a future semester, you will need to first copy the capture(s) to your Private Course inside of Tegrity (content in Private Courses will not be automatically removed after a semester is over). When you are ready to use the content in a new course, simply copy it again into the course site in Tegrity you wish to use it in. Please note: if you wish to preserve recorded lectures from a given semester, you will need to copy them to your Private Course no later than 6 weeks after grades are due in that semester. It is the University's practice to delete all Tegrity content associated with a Banner course on a regular basis. For more, see the Tegrity retention policy above.
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12. How do I move captured content to my Private Course, so that it is not deleted as part of the regular file clean-up?

  • To move captured content from a (Banner-associated) course in Tegrity into your Private Course:
    1. Log in to Tegrity by going to https://slu.tegrity.com, and click on the name of the course that contains the capture(s) you wish to move.
    2. Check the box to the right of the recording(s) you wish to move to your Private Course.
    3. Click the Recording Tasks button at the top right of the window.
    4. Select either Copy or Move. (Note: Selecting Move is the preferred option unless your students still need access to the original recording until it is deleted from Tegrity.)
    5. When the dialog box for the copy/move opens, scroll down to select your Private Course (Your Name Private Course) and click on the Copy Recording button.
    6. You should then receive a dialog box that says "Recording(s) have been queued for copying/moving". Click the OK button.
    7. Check back to verify that your recordings are now available in your Private Course in Tegrity. 

    Note: To reuse the recordings now in your Private Course for a future Banner course, repeat this process but select the appropriate course to move/copy the content into.
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13. What if I have captured student comments during a recorded lecture? Can I still use it in a future semester?

  • Yes, but you may need student consent to do so. The same privacy considerations that apply in a brick and mortar classroom, particularly to student work, apply to lecture capture broadcasts. If Tegrity is used to disseminate student presentations, small group discussions, or seminar classes in a course in a future semester, faculty members will be responsible for obtaining student consent prior to distribution. (Click here for a consent form). Faculty members are not required to obtain student consent when broadcasting their own image and content, or when incidental or no student participation is recorded during a lecture and when the broadcast is directed to a defined course.
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14. Should I just turn on the recorder and record everything?

  • How you use Tegrity is largely a matter of pedagogical goals, so this decision should be made with teaching goals / learning outcomes in mind. (See below for additional pedagogical considerations.) However, there are also questions of student privacy that must be considered, as well. Whenever you plan to record live classes, you should be sure that students know the recording will be occurring. There are several ways to make this apparent, such as: announcing in class that you are turning on the recorder, and that students can request at any time to have it turned off, should the lecture or discussion involve sensitive topics; including a statement on your syllabus that in-class recordings may be made, so that students are aware of this from the beginning of the semester. (A recommended syllabus statement can be found below.)
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15. What happens if I accidentally record a confidential conversation with a student?

  • Occasionally, before or after class, students may share information of a confidential nature with you while the Tegrity recorder is still running. If this happens, you should remove that section of the recording, using the editing tools available within Tegrity, before making the recording available to your students. (For help editing a recording, click here.)
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16. Will my students stop coming to class if I make lectures available?

  • The research shows there is no noticeable negative impact on students' class attendance. Despite a common assumption among instructors that students will stop coming to class if they have access to a recorded lecture, the research consistently indicates that access to recorded lectures generally does not lead to students skipping classes (Petherbridge, 2010; Zhu, Bergom, 2010). Feedback from initial surveys of faculty at SLU supports this view.
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17. Do students actually listen to recorded lectures?

  • There is no hard, consistent data about percentages of students who access LC information when it is available. Most of the research studies are set up to observe the real and perceived usefulness of the LC systems and, therefore, focus information gathering on the students who actually used the systems, not the ones who opted not to do so. In recent focus groups in courses at SLU where Tegrity is being used, a significant number of students (20-30% in each class) expressed their appreciation for having access to Tegrity and commented that they used it frequently. (More data is forthcoming on reported usage among SLU students.)
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18. Can I review recorded lectures in order to assess students' participation and class contributions? Are there any privacy considerations with this?

  • If you were going to use Tegrity for this purpose, students would obviously need to be told in advance. In these cases, recordings should not be made available to other students in future semesters without student consent.
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19. If I want to include a statement on my syllabus about lecture capture, what should it say?

  • The following offers sample language you might import directly into your syllabus:
    "Lectures may be recorded and made available to students registered for this class using the Tegrity lecture capture system. Use of Tegrity is intended to supplement the classroom experience. Duplication or redistribution of lecture capture recordings is prohibited without appropriate consent. For technical assistance and for compliance issues (such as copyright and privacy considerations), please see the lecture capture guidelines available at http:slu.edu/capture."
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Student Considerations

1. Can I make lectures of my own?
2. What are the privacy considerations for me in lecture capture?
3. What formats are available for captured lectures?
4. Why doesn't my professor put lectures in downloadable formats?

1. Can I make lectures of my own?

  • Yes. There are lots of reasons you might wish to record a lecture or other type of presentation (e.g., you could review it as a self-assessment in preparation for an in-class presentation).
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2. What are the privacy considerations for me in lecture capture?

  • For the most part, there aren't any, as long as you are recording your own lecture / presentation.
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3. What formats are available for captured lectures?

  • There are several formats available within the system, including formats for streaming audio/video and downloadable formats. Instructors will decide which ones are used within their courses, based on their own priorities and the nature of their content. The default format for Tegrity at SLU is Tegrity's streaming format based upon Windows Media Server. Instructors may also choose to make lectures available in downloadable formats, such as MP3 (audio only) or M4V (audio and presentation - MP4). However, instructors cannot do this for lectures that contact copyrighted or other protected material.
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4. Why doesn't my professor put lectures in downloadable formats?

  • In most cases, faculty make recorded material available to be used by students in a single course, in single semester. While the the default mode for recorded lectures in Tegrity is a streaming format, proprietary to Tegrity, instructors can choose to make recorded lectures downloadable, but they may decide not to do so for a variety of reasons, including intellectual property issues, copyright protection, etc. (For additional information, see the Faculty Considerations section above.)
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Resources

Relevant SLU Policies / Procedures

Campus Resources

  • For technical issues related to Tegrity: For tips on how to use the Tegrity tool at SLU, including things related to: technical matters, file formats, making files available to students, editing recordings, etc., please go to http://slu.edu/capture.
  • For copyright permission / licensing for course materials: To request assistance with copyright permissions for materials used in class, please consult the SLU Libraries. Information on copyright and fair use can be found on the SLU Libraries website.
  • For legal issues related to copyright and/or FERPA: Contact the Office of the General Counsel at (314) 977-2506.
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Tips for Teaching with Lecture Capture

In general, as described above and in the literature, lecture capture can greatly enhance students' work in your classes. However, like all teaching tools, Tegrity / lecture capture will only be as effective as you make it. To ensure that you are making effective use of Tegrity, we offer the following tips for best practices. (Many of these are adapted from Zhu, Bergom, 2010.)

A Note about Lecture Classes vs. Discussion Classes:
As you consider whether Tegrity use is right for you, please keep in mind that "lectures" and "discussions" have different pedagogical implications, and therefore, may not yield the same results when they are recorded. If you teach a course that is predominantly lecture (even interactive lecture, with students asking questions and some give and take with you), lecture capture might be a good tool for content delivery. If, however, you teach a class that relies heavily on student-to-student discussions and interactions, recording what happens in class could have a dampening effect on students' willingness to contribute openly and honestly. Particularly if you teach subjects that result in very emotionally or personally charged discussions, you might want to use Tegrity only for those portions of class that involve your delivering content. While there are potentially some privacy considerations when recording student discussions, there are even more significant pedagogical ones, if the fact that the discussion is being recorded serves as an impediment to open, honest exchange of ideas. Instructors should use their best judgment about how best to engage students in lively discussion as a group, while also protecting the identities and ideas of individual students.
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Best Practices for Using Lecture Capture

1. Before you start, make sure that you:

  • Determine whether or not lecture capture is an appropriate choice for your purposes. This means identifying very clear goals for your lectures and class time and considering the ways you want students to use recorded lectures and how you will use class time;
  • Determine whether you have the time to prepare them consistently throughout the entire semester and identify any technology decisions you'll need to make (will you record in your classroom? will you record in your office? does your classroom have an automated lecture capture system/service?) (Click here to view the list of Tegrity enabled classrooms.);
  • Attend to relevant copyright and University policies regarding LC (e.g., acquiring copyright clearance for materials and release forms from students if their questions and answers will be recorded and the LC will be shared beyond the current semester's classroom).
  • Determine whether you will want to re-use these lectures for later use in other courses (since this will determine how and what you capture).
  • Determine what format you want to make the file available in for students (either streaming or downloadable) (see Faculty Considerations section above).

2. Once you decide to capture a lecture, make time to experiment with recording quality. Poor sound quality can make a recording unusable.

3. Make recordings available as soon as possible after a lecture, as well as right before an exam. If possible, annotate the recording to add emphasis and focus.

4. If you require students to listen to recordings before class time, provide them with content-related questions or other learning activities (such as applied problem solving, etc.). It can be very effective to assign tasks (e.g., activities based on the recorded lectures) to be handed in during class, which you will count in students' grades.

5. If you require students to listen to recordings before class, use the class time for problems solving, interactive activities, and other student-centered processes. Do not simply repeat content from the recorded lecture.

6. Provide detailed instructions for accessing and playing lectures at the beginning of the course, and make recordings accessible during the class, so students can make notes.

7. Evaluate the use and effectiveness of LC during and/or at the end of your course.
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References / For Further Research

Fernandez, Vicenc, Pep Simo, and Jose M. Sallan.
Podcasting: A new technological tool to facilitate good practice in higher education.

Zhu, Erping and Inger Bergom.
Lecture Capture: A Guide for Effective Use.

Petherbridge, Donna.
Lecture Capture - Annotated Bibliography.

Student Surveys and Opinions from UNC Charlotte
http://teaching.uncc.edu/learning-resources/articles-books/tip-sheets/lecture-capture
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