Lee I. Smith, Ph.D., M.S.N., B.S.N., RN

Professor
School of Nursing


Courses Taught

Women's and Gender Studies Program

Education

  • B.A., Russian, Douglass College Rutgers University
  • B.S.N., Saint Louis University
  • M.S.N., University of Utah
  • Ph.D., Nursing, University of California at San Francisco

Research Interests

Dr. Smith's research interest is primarily in the parenting practices of teenage mothers. She has also studied the development of public health nursing expertise and the educational use of therapeutic letters in undergraduate nursing education. 

Publications and Media Placements

  • Bekaert, S., & SmithBattle, L. (in review). Teen mothers’ experience of intimate partner violence: A metasynthesis.
  • SmithBattle, L. & Freed, P. (2016). An overview of teen mothers’ mental health, Part 1. MCN American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 41, 31-36.
  • Freed, P., & SmithBattle, L. (in press). Promoting teen mothers’ mental health; Part 2. MCN American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
  • Rehg, E., & SmithBattle, L. (2015). On to the “rough ground”: Introducing doctoral students to philosophical perspectives on knowledge. Nursing Philosophy, 16, 98-109. DOI: 10.1111/nup.12077
  • SmithBattle, L. (2014). Developing students’ qualitative muscles in an introductory methods course. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 11(1), 1-8. DOI: 10.1515/ijnes-2014- 0025
  • SmithBattle, L., & Leonard, V. (2014). Teen mothers at mid-life: The long shadow of adversarial family caregiving. Advances in Nursing Science, 37(2), 87-100. DOI: 10.1097/ANS.00000000000000020
  • SmithBattle, L. (2013). Reducing the stigmatization of teen mothers. MCN American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 38, 235-241. DOI:10.1097/NMC.0b013e3182836bd4
  • SmithBattle, L., Lorenz, R., & Leander, S. (2013). Listening with care: Using narrative methods to cultivate nurses’ responsive relationships in a home visiting intervention with teen mothers. Nursing Inquiry, 20, 188-198. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1800.2012.00606.x
  • Pohlman, S., Cibulka, N., Palmer, J., Lorenz, R., & SmithBattle, L. (2013). The placebo puzzle: Examining the discordant space between biomedical science and illness/healing. Nursing Inquiry, 20, 71-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1800.2012.00592.x. (first published online Feb. 14, 2012).
  • SmithBattle, L. (2012). Learning to see the other through student-created dramas. Journal of Nursing Education, 51, 591-594. doi: 10.3928/01484834-20120820- 09
  • SmithBattle, L. (2012). Moving policies upstream to mitigate the social determinants of early childbearing. Public Health Nursing, 29, 444-454. doi:10.1111/j1525-1446.2012.01017.x
  • SmithBattle, L., & Leonard, V. (2012). Inequities compounded: Explaining variations in the transition to adulthood for teen mothers’ offspring. Journal of Family Nursing, 18, 409-431. doi: 10.1177/1074840712443871
  • SmithBattle, L., Leander, S., Westhus, N., Freed, P., & McLaughlin, D. (2010). Writing therapeutic letters in undergraduate nursing education: Promoting relational skill development. Qualitative Health Research, 20, 707-716.
  • Freed, P. E., McLaughlin, D. E., SmithBattle, L., Leander, S., & Westhus, N. (2010). It's the little things that count: The value of therapeutic letters. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 31, 265-272.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2010) Listening with care to teen mothers and their families. In G. Chan, K. Brykczynski, R. Malone & P. Benner (Eds.). Interpretive phenomenology in health care research ( pp.217-241). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.
  • Freed, P. E., McLaughlin, D. E., SmithBattle, L., Leander, S., & Westhus, N. (2010). Therapeutic letters in undergraduate nursing education: Ideas for clinical nurse educators. Nurse Education Today, 30, 470-475. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2009.10.009
  • SmithBattle, L. (2009) Pregnant with possibilities: Drawing on hermeneutic thought to reframe home-visiting programs for young mothers. Nursing Inquiry,16, 191-200.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2009). Reframing the risks and losses of teen mothering. MCN American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 34, 122-128.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2008). Gaining ground from a cultural tradition: A teen mother’s story of repairing the world. Family Process, 47, 521-535.
  • Maposa, S. & SmithBattle, L. (2008). Preliminary reliability and validity of the grandparent version of the Grandparent Support Scale for Teen Mothers, Journal of Family Nursing,14, 224-241.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2007). Legacies of advantage and disadvantage: The case of teen mothers. Public Health Nursing, 24(5), 409-420.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2007) “I wanna have a good future”: Teen mothers’ aspirations, competing demands, and limited school support. Youth and Society, 38, 348-371.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2007). Learning the baby: Findings from an interpretive study of teen mothers. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 22, 261-271.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2006). Mothering served as a narrative backbone that supported a meaningful, well developed life in some teen mothers, Evidence-Based Nursing, 9, 124. (summary of 2005 article published in Qualitative Health Research).
  • SmithBattle, L., & Leonard, V. W. (2006). Teen mothers and their teenaged children: The reciprocity of developmental trajectories. Advances in Nursing Science, 29, 351-365.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2006). Family legacies in shaping teen mothers’ caregiving practices over 12 years. Qualitative Health Research, 16, 1129-1144.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2006). Helping teen mothers succeed. Journal of School Nursing, 22, 130-135.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2005). Teenage mothers at age 30. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 27, 831-850.
  • Borcherding, K., SmithBattle, L., & Schneider, J. K. (2005). A preliminary investigation of the grandparent support scale for teenage mothers. Journal of Family Nursing, 11, 289-306.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2005). Reexamining our assumptions about teenage mothers. American Journal of Nursing, 105(4), 13.
  • SmithBattle, L., Pohlman, S., & Broeder, J. (2004). Listening to the baby: Evaluating a baby book journal for new parents. Journal of Family Nursing, 10, 173-189. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L., Diekemper, M., & Leander, S. (2004) Getting your feet wet: Becoming a public health nurse, Part 1. Public Health Nursing, 21, 3-11. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L., Diekemper, M., & Leander, S. (2004) Moving upstream: Becoming a public health nurse, Part 2. Public Health Nursing, 21, 95-102. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L. (2003). Understanding teenage mothering: Conventional and unconventional wisdom. Prevention Researcher, 10:3, 1-4. (invited paper) (reprinted in School Nurse News, 2004, 21:3, 36-39).
  • SmithBattle, L. (2003). Displacing the “rulebook” in caring for teen mothers. Public Health Nursing, 20, 369-376. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L., & Diekemper, M. (2001). Promoting clinical practice knowledge in an age of taxonomies and protocols. Public Health Nursing, 18, 401-408. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L. (2000). Sowing seeds for the future: Preserving the wisdom embedded in community health nursing practice. Proceedings of Community Nurses Interest Group National Conference, Bunbury, Western Australia, 65-77.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2000). The vulnerabilities of teenage mothers: Challenging prevailing assumptions. Advances in Nursing Science, 23(1), 29-40. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L., & Diekemper, M. (2000). A wrong turn: How taxonomies lead nursing astray. American Journal of Nursing, 100(7), 9.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2000). Developing a caregiving tradition in opposition to ones past: Lessons from a longitudinal study of teenage mothers. Public Health Nursing, 17, 85-93. (peer-reviewed)
  • Zerwych, J. Response by SmithBattle, L., Diekemper, M., & Drake, M. A. (2000). Qualitative research with communities. In S. Moch & M. Gates (Eds). Qualitative research and the researcher’s experience (pp. 35-53) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Diekemper, M., SmithBattle, L., & Drake, M. A. (1999). Bringing the population into focus: A natural development in community health nursing practice. Part 1. Public Health Nursing, 16, 3-10. (peer-reviewed)
  • Diekemper, M., SmithBattle, L., & Drake, M. A. (1999). Sharpening the focus on populations: An intentional community health nursing approach. Part 2. Public Health Nursing, 16, 11-16. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L., Diekemper, M., & Drake, M. A. (1999). Articulating the culture and tradition of community health nursing. Public Health Nursing, 16, 215-222. (peer-reviewed)
  •  SmithBattle, L. & Leonard, V. W. (1998). Teenage mothers four years later: Narratives of self and visions of the future. Advances in Nursing Science, 20(3), 36-49. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L., Drake, M. A., & Diekemper, M. (1997). The responsive use of self in community health nursing practice. Advances in Nursing Science, 20(2), 75-89. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L. (1997). Change and continuity in family care giving practices with young mothers and their children. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 29, 145-149. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L., Drake, M. A., & Diekemper, M. (1997). Reclaiming the tradition: Discourse in community health nursing practice. Association of Community Health Nursing Educators 1996-1998 Spring Institute Papers, pp. 85-93. ACHNE Headquarters, Pensacola FL.
  • SmithBattle, L. (1996). Intergenerational ethics of caring for teenage mothers and their children. Family Relations, 45, 56-64. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L. (1995). Teenage mothers' narratives of self: An examination of "Risking the Future." Advances in Nursing Science, 17(4), 2-14. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L. (1994). Beyond normalizing. The role of narrative in understanding teenage mothers' transition to mothering. In P. Benner (Ed.), Interpretive phenomenology: Embodiment, caring, and ethics in health and illness (pp. 141-166). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • SmithBattle, L. (1993). Mothering in the midst of danger. In S. L. Feetham, S. B. Meister, J. M. Bell, & C. L. Gilliss (Eds.), The nursing of families (pp. 235-246). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. (abstract peer-reviewed as part of conference)
  • Smith, L. (1991). Critique [of family-focused tertiary prevention with the adolescent mother and her child.]. In S. Humenick, N. Wilkerson, & N. Paul (Eds.), Adolescent pregnancy: Nursing perspectives on prevention (pp. 155-168). Birth Defects: Original Article Series, Volume 27, Number 1. White Plains, NY: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation.
  • Smith, L. (1983). A conceptual model of families incorporating adolescent mother and child into the household. Advances in Nursing Sciences, 60(1), 45-60. (peer-reviewed)
  • Duffy, M.E., & Smith, L. (1990). The process of providing support to recently divorced single mothers. Health Care for Women International, 11(3), 277-298. (peer-reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L. (2009).[ Destinies of the disadvantaged: The politics of teen childbearing]. [Book Review]. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 54, e15.
  • SmithBattle, L. (2004). [Review of the book Unfit subjects: Educational policy and the teen mother.] Prevention Researcher, 11, Supplement, 8-9.
  • SmithBattle, L. (1998). [Going all the way: Teenage girls' tales of sex, romance, and pregnancy] [Book review]. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30, 30.
  • Smith, L. (1988). [Adolescent mothers in later life] [Book review]. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 3, 422-423.
  • Mills, A. (Producer), & Freed, P., Westhus, N., SmithBattle, L., McLaughlin, D., & Leander, S. (Writers) (2010). It's the little things that count: Introducing therapeutic letters to undergraduate nursing students. [DVD].
  • SmithBattle, L. (May 23, 2014). Recovering the social worlds of teen mothers. Keynote presentation at the Interdisciplinary Coalition of North American Phenomenologists, St. Louis, MO
  • SmithBattle, L. (October 25, 2013). Rethinking teen parenting: Findings from a multigenerational study of teen mothers and their children. Saving babies Strengthening families: A summit to support the health and safety of Missouri’s babies. Nurses for Newborns. St. Louis, MO
  • SmithBattle, L. (July 19, 2013). Shifting paradigms on young families and why it matters. Critical Conversations: Parenting and Pregnant Youth. Sponsored by the Children’s Services Division of Family Permanency Services, New York City, New York
  • SmithBattle, L. (July 19, 2013). Linked lives: Following young families and their children over two decades. Critical Conversations: Parenting and Pregnant Youth. Sponsored by the Children’s Services Division of Family Permanency Services, New York City, New York
  • SmithBattle, L. (April 5, 2013). What now? Invited presentation for the induction ceremony of Omicron Iota, STTI, Maryville University, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L. (March 6, 2013). Doing something more: Moving upstream to address the social determinants of teen pregnancy and parenting. Annual Spring Conference, California Directors of Public Health Nursing, Sacramento, CA.
  • SmithBattle, L. (February, 2011). Linked lives and family care giving: Following teen mothers and their families over two decades. Invited paper presented at Saint Louis University Women’s Studies Brownbag Series.
  • SmithBattle, L. (September, 2010). Linked lives and family care giving: Following teen mothers and their families over two decades. Invited paper presented at The State of Interpretive Research in Health and Health Care: Patricia Benner’s Work and Legacy. University of California at San Francisco.
  • SmithBattle, L. (May 15, 2010). What now? Invited presentation for the induction ceremony of Delta Lambda, STTI, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L (October, 2009). Challenging the scientific-clinical gaze: Teen parents’ strengths and the social determinants of early childbearing. Invited paper presented at Critical Conversations: Creating a Pipeline to Success for Young Mothers. Sponsored by the Brooklyn Young Mothers’ Collective and the New York Women’s Foundation in Partnership with Fordham University Interdisciplinary Center for Family and Child Advocacy. New York City, NY.
  • SmithBattle, L. (September, 2007). Teen mothers and legacies of family care giving. Nursing Practice, Ethics, Education & Philosophy Symposium. Invited paper presented at Asilomar, Pacific Grove, CA.
  • SmithBattle, L. (March, 2005). Conducting research with vulnerable populations: Conceptual barriers and practical challenges. Invited paper presented at Yale University School of Nursing, New Haven, CT.
  • SmithBattle, L. (March, 2005). Listening with care to teen mothers and their families. Invited paper presented at Yale University School of Nursing, New Haven, CT.
  • SmithBattle, L. (September, 2000). Sowing seeds for the future: Preserving the wisdom embedded in community health nursing (CHN) practice. Keynote address for the Community Nurse Interest Group National Conference, Bunbury, Western Australia.
  • SmithBattle, L., Diekemper, M. A., & Drake, M. A. (November, 1998). Talking together: Stories of community health nursing. Invited paper presented at the annual meeting of the Missouri Public Health Association, Lake of the Ozarks, MO.
  • Smith, L. (April, 1990). Teenage mothers: Exploring the possibilities and constraints in our culture. Invited paper for workshop entitled Adolescent parenting: Broadening our horizons sponsored by Jewish Hospital and St. Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L. (October, 2013). “You expect me to do what?” Teaching and learning qualitative research methods in a study on family meals. Paper presented at the International Qualitative Research Methods conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • SmithBattle, L. (June, 2007). Gaining ground from a cultural tradition: A teen mother’s story of repairing the world. Paper presented at the 8 the International Family Nursing Conference, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • SmithBatte, L. (June, 2007). Disrupting the clinical gaze with the help of philosophers. Invited paper presented at the School of Nursing, Burapha University, Thailand.
  • SmithBattle, L. (April, 2002). Teen mothers’ accounts of learning the baby: Findings from an interpretive study. Paper presented at the 8 th Annual Qualitative Health Research Conference, Banff, Canada. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (September, 2000). Listening to teen mothers: Lessons from a longitudinal study. Paper presented at the Community Nurses Interest Group National Conference, Bunbury, Western Australia. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (September, 2000). Supporting teen mothers: Findings from a longitudinal study. Paper presented to the Department of Social Work, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, Australia.
  • SmithBattle, L., Drake, M. A., & Diekemper, M. (June, 1997). Everything old is new again: Reclaiming the CHN tradition. Paper presented at the Spring Institute of the Association of Community Health Nursing Educators, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. (Abstract published in proceedings.) (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (May, 1994). The tact of listening: Interpretation of text in the family study of teenage mothers. Paper presented at the Third International Family Nursing Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L., Freed, P., & McLaughlin, D. (November, 2015). Moms Growing Together (MGT): Piloting a mental health intervention for teen mother. Poster presented at the American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition, Chicago, IL.
  • SmithBattle, L., Freed, P., & McLaughlin, D. (November 18, 2014). Teen mothers’ mental health; A call for action based on the state of the science. Presented at the American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition, New Orleans, LO.
  • SmithBattle, L., McLaughin, D., & Freed, P. (October 9, 2014). Action methods to facilitate attunement between mother and child. Paper presented at the Parents as Teachers National Convention, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L. (May 24, 2014). A (brief) introduction to phenomenological traditions in health research. Part of a symposium presented at the Interdisciplinary Coalition of North American Phenomenologists, St. Louis, MO
  • SmithBattle, L., Schneider, J., & Loman, D. (March 28, 2014). The promise and challenges of met-analytic review of intervention studies for teen mothers: An umbrella review. Poster presented at the Midwest Nursing Research Society, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L. (October, 2012). The long shadow of adversarial family care giving as teen mothers enter mid-life. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, San Francisco, CA. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 2010). Moving policies upstream to disrupt the links between social injustice and early childbearing. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington D.C. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (April, 2006). Teen mothers and their children’s fertility: What goes around comes around? Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Nursing Research Society, Milwaukee, WI. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 2004). Therapeutic letters: Their use in a clinical trial with teen mothers. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington D.C. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (February, 2004). Teenage mothers 12 years later: Creating a future or repeating the past? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Nursing Research Society, St. Louis, MO. (peer reviewed)
  • Borcherding, K., SmithBattle, L., & Schneider, J. (February, 2004). Initial psychometric testing of the Family Support Scale. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Nursing Research Society, St. Louis, MO. (peer reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 2003). Speaking for the baby: The use of a baby book journal to promote teen mothers’ transition to mothering. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, San Francisco, CA. (peer reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L. (April, 2003). Designing an intervention study: The tension between research protocols and promoting clinical judgment and nurse responsiveness. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Nursing Research Society. (peer reviewed)
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 2002). Listening with care to teen mothers: An intervention designed to foster the clinical reasoning of PHNs. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Pennsylvania, PA. (peer reviewed).
  • Diekemper, M., Leander, S., & SmithBattle, L. (November, 2002). Support for excellence: Exploring narratives from PHN managers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Pennsylvania, PA. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L., & Diekemper, M. (June, 2002). Fostering public health nursing as a career choice using clinical narratives. Paper presented at the Spring Institute of the Association of Community Health Nursing Educators, St. Louis, MO. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (April, 2002). Teen mothers’ accounts of learning the baby: Findings from an interpretive study. Paper presented at the Qualitative Health Institute, Banff, Canada. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 2001). Family worlds and teenage mothers’ accounts of stress and coping. Paper presented at the National Council of Family Relations, Rochester, NY. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L., Diekemper, M., & Leander, S. (October, 2001). Diamonds in the rough: Learning to be a public health nurse. Paper presented at the American Public Health Association, Atlanta, GA (Abstract published in proceedings). (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L., & Diekemper, M. (November, 2000). Qualitative notions of success in CHN practice: A response to calls for evidenced based practice. Paper presented at the American Public Health Association, Boston, MA (Abstract published in proceedings). (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (June, 2000). An update on ANA’s Committee on Revising the Scope and Standards for Community Health Nursing. Presentation presented at the Association for Community Health Nursing Education, Phoenix, AZ.
  • SmithBattle, L., & Diekemper, M. (November, 1999). Discovering and celebrating public health nursing in an age of taxonomies and outcomes research. Paper presented at the American Public Health Association, Washington D. C. (Abstract published in proceedings). (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 1998). Supporting teenage mothers: Implications from longitudinal research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington D. C. (Abstract published in proceedings). (peer reviewed).
  • Diekemper, M. A., SmithBattle, L., & Drake, M. A. (November, 1998). Uncovering the skills and expertise of population-focused community health nursing practice. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington D. C. (Abstract published in proceedings). (peer reviewed).
  • Drake, M. A., SmithBattle, L., & Diekemper, M. A. (November, 1998). Breaking the rules. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington D. C. (Abstract published in proceedings). (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L., Diekemper, M., & Drake, M. A. (November, 1997). Everything old is new again: Reclaiming the CHN tradition. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association meeting, Indianapolis, IN. (Abstract published in proceedings.) (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 1996). Teenage mothers four years later: An interpretive study Roundtable presentation at the Annual Conference of the National Council of Family Relations, Kansas City, MO. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 1995). Change and continuity in care giving practices: A follow-up study of the intergenerational context of teenage mothering. Paper presented at the annual meeting of National Council of Family Relations, Portland, OR. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 1994). Risking the future? An examination of teenage mothering. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the National Council of Family Relations, Minneapolis, MN. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (June, 1994). Interdependent lives: Grandparents, teenage mothers and babies. Invited paper National Conference, Parents as Teachers National Center at St. Louis, MO.
  • Smith, L. (May, 1991). Mothering in the midst of danger. Paper presented at the Second International Family Nursing Conference, Portland, Oregon. (Abstract published in proceedings.) (peer reviewed).
  • Smith, L., & Leonard, V. W. (November, 1990). Stress and coping in teen mothers and mothers with career commitments. Poster presentation at the Annual Meeting of National Council of Family Relations, Seattle, WA. (peer reviewed).
  • Leonard, V., Scott, B., & SmithBattle, L. (November, 1990). Child as product versus child as a going concern: Theories of learning implicit in child care manuals. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Family Relations, Seattle, WA. (peer reviewed).
  • Smith, L. (October, 1990). Facilitating the transition to motherhood for teenagers: Implications of research findings for clinical practice. Paper presented at the American Public Health Association Meeting, New York, NY. (Abstract published in proceedings.) (peer reviewed).
  • Smith, L., & Leonard, V. (October, 1990). Interpretation: A qualitative method for studying public health nursing phenomena. Paper presented at the American Public Health Association Meeting, New York, NY. (Abstract published in proceedings.) (peer reviewed).
  • Smith, L. (September, 1989). Critique [of family-focused tertiary prevention with the adolescent mother and her child.] Invited paper presented at the Nursing Round table on Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood sponsored by the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, Laramie, Wyoming.
  • Smith, L. (September, 1989). Family involvement in early motherhood. Paper presented at Conference on Family Nursing, Portland, OR.
  • Smith, L. (November, 1988). Rescuing the meaning of motherhood: A critique of the empirical-rational investigation of mothering. Paper presented at the American Public Healt Association, Boston, MA. (Abstract published in proceedings.) (peer reviewed).
  • Smith, L. (November, 1988). Who is the family of the adolescent mother? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Family Relations, Philadelphia, PA. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (May 10, 2013). The long shadow of adversarial family care giving as teen mothers enter mid-life. Paper presented at the annual conference of The Teenage Pregnancy and Prevention Partnership, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L. (May 11, 2012). Reframing the risks and losses of early childbearing: Findings from a longitudinal, multigenerational study of teen mothers and their children. Presented at the annual conference of The Teenage Pregnancy and Prevention Partnership, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L., Leander, S., Freed, P., McLaughlin, D. E., & Westhus, N. (Jan. 12, 2012). Contemplatives in action: Therapeutic letters and nursing. Break-out session at “Writing to learn at a Jesuit institution” sponsored by the Center for Teaching Excellence, Saint Louis University.
  • SmithBattle, L. (May 13, 2011). Helping pregnant and parenting teens succeed in school. Presented at the annual conference of The Teenage Pregnancy and Prevention Partnership, St. Louis, MO.
  • Leander, S., Freed, P., McLaughlin, D. E., SmithBattle, L., & Westhus, N. (March, 2011). Therapeutic Letters in Undergraduate Nursing Education: Ideas for Clinical Nurse Educators. Poster presentation at 11th annual Nurse Educator Institute, Striving for Evidence-based Practice in Nursing Education. Branson, MO.
  • Freed, P., Leander, S., McLaughlin, D. E., Pohlman, S., SmithBattle, L., & Westhus, N. (February, 2009). Moving from passive to active learning: Reflections on practice. Symposium presentation at the Seventh Biennial Qualitative Research Conference: Generations in Qualitative Research, University of Missouri—St. Louis.
  • SmithBattle, L. (November, 2007). Research 101: Qualitative research methods in nursing. Presentation to clinical nurses and educators, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital at Washington University.
  • SmithBattle, L. (October, 2007). Disrupting the scientific-clinical gaze: Findings from a 16 year study of teen mothers and their families. Presented for class in Department Communication Sciences and Disorders, course # 505.
  • SmithBattle, L., Freed, P., Leanders, S., Maposa, S., McLaughlin, D., Morrison, N., & Westhus, N. (September, 2007). Promoting student reflection with therapeutic letters. Presentation at the Voices Sustainability Symposium, Saint Louis University.
  • SmithBattle, L. (June, 2007). Gaining ground from a cultural tradition: A teen mother’s story of repairing the world. Paper presented at Webster University, St. Louis University, graduate course in Family Nursing Course.
  • SmithBattle, L. (April, 2007). Research 101: Qualitative research methods in nursing. Presentation to clinical nurses and educators, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital at Washington University.
  • SmithBattle, L. (December, 2006). Listening with care to teen mothers and their families: A 16 year study. Paper presented at Maryville University, graduate level nursing research course.
  • SmithBattle, L. (October, 2002). Interviewing as method: A research symposium. Paper presented as part of symposium for Research Conference, School of Nursing, Saint Louis University. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L., Pohlman, S., & Broeder, J. (October, 2002). Listening to the baby: The development of a baby book journal. Paper submitted for Research Conference, School of Nursing, Saint Louis University. (peer reviewed).
  • Pohlman, S., Broeder, J., & SmithBattle, L. (October, 2002). Speaking from the baby’s voice: A baby book for parents of preterm infants. Paper submitted for Research Conference, School of Nursing, Saint Louis University. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (March, 1999). Gaining a better clinical understanding through research. Paper presented at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L. (October, 1999). Listening to Teenage Mothers and Their Families. Paper presented at the Conference Helping Teens Accept Sexual Responsibility, sponsored by the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Partnership, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L., & Talley, P. (October, 1999). Listening to Teenage Mothers. Paper presented at the Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Conference Sponsored by the Human Development Corporation, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L. (October, 1998). Teenage mothers eight years later: Variations in narratives of the self and care giving. Paper presented at the annual research conference of the School of Nursing, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO. (Abstract published in proceedings). (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (December, 1997). Stories from CHN practice: An update. Paper presented at the Community Health Nursing Special Interest Group, 3rd District, Missouri Nurses Association, St. Louis, MO.
  • Drake, M. A., SmithBattle, L., & Diekemper, M. (October, 1996). The heroics of everyday practice of communty health nurses. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Research Conference, Saint Louis University School of Nursing, St. Louis, MO. (peer reviewed).
  • Diekemper, M., SmithBattle, L., & Drake, M. A. (September, 1996). Uncovering the skills and expertise of population-focused community health nursing. Poster presented at the annual Research Day, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, Edwardville, IL
  • SmithBattle, L. (October, 1995). Former teenage mothers' narratives of self and visions of the future. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Research Conference, Saint Louis University School of Nursing, St. Louis, MO. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (October, 1994). Intergenerational ethics of caring for teenage mothers and their children. Paper presented at the 22nd Annual Research Conference, Saint Louis University School of Nursing, St. Louis, MO. (peer reviewed).
  • SmithBattle, L. (September, 1994). Teenage mothers four years later. Paper presented at Research Presentation, School of Nursing, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO.
  • SmithBattle, L. (1992). Caring for teenage mothers and their children: Narratives of self and ethics of intergenerational care giving. Doctoral dissertation, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
  • Smith, L. (1983). A conceptual model of families incorporating adolescent mother and child. Masters thesis, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Honors and Awards