The following supplements the policy on Academic Integrity found in the Saint Louis University Graduate Education Catalog.
"Academic integrity" is a commitment, even in the face of adversity, to five fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility. From these values flow principles of behavior that enable academic communities to translate ideals into action." (Center for Academic Integrity, 1999. p3)
To maintain academic integrity faculty and students must be intellectually responsible and avoid misconduct.
"Intellectual responsibility" includes (1) clearly crediting one's own work and (2) completely and accurately crediting the work of others (3) using all sources, including electronic sources, critically
- To clearly credit one's own work, an author must make it evident what is his or her own interpretation of another's work or analysis of an area of study. This includes avoiding unintentional plagiarism such as that caused by inadequate paraphrasing of the work of others or transcription of notes that fail to indicate a direct quote. Anything that is not referenced is being claimed as one's own work.
- Complete and accurate crediting of the work of others means citing the source when paraphrasing the work of others or presenting verbatim segments in quotes. Complete and accurate citations allow the reader to obtain the original source material. See the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001) or the following websites for summaries of using APA format to cite print sources and electronic sources. Paraphrasing involves substantial restating of a point and is not limited to changing a few words here or there.
- Using sources critically involves being aware of the roles and limitations of gatekeepers who oversee the quality of some scholarly materials. Users need to apply critical judgment to assess the quality of information sources and content (peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed). Critical judgment is especially important in evaluating electronic sources because the gatekeepers who oversee quality of scholarly printed materials are often not in place for web-based materials. Consequently the user must be skilled at evaluating the quality of the information source. Not all web-based materials are appropriate as sources for academic work.
- Intentional Plagiarism: "Knowingly copying another's work or ideas and calling them one's own or not giving proper credit or citation. This includes reading or hearing another's work or ideas and using them as one's own; quoting, paraphrasing, or condensing another's work without giving proper credit; purchasing or receiving another's work and using, handling, or submitting it as one's own work." (Michigan Technological University, 1999, p.1) Material should be paraphrased or quoted directly and the source cited. Paraphrasing means substantial rewording and is not limited to replacing a few words. (Markham, R.H., Markham. P.T. & Waddell, M.L., 1989)
- Cheating: Intentional, unauthorized use of any study aids, equipment, or another's work during an academic exercise. This includes unauthorized use of notes, study aids, electronic or other equipment during an examination, copying or looking at another individual's examination; taking or passing information to another individual during an examination; taking an examination for another individual; allowing another individual to take one's examination; stealing examinations." (Michigan Technological University, 1999, p.1) The expectation is that you will complete all graded work individually unless there is a prior agreement with the Instructor for shared or group work. Prior agreement is also recommended if you are going to get extensive editorial assistance.
- Fabrication: Intentional and/or unauthorized falsification or invention of any information or citation during an academic exercise. This includes changing or adding an answer on an examination and resubmitting it to change the grade; inventing data for a research study, exercise or report." (Michigan Technological University, 1999, p.1)
- Facilitating Academic: Knowingly allowing or helping another individual to plagiarize, cheat or fabricate information." (Michigan Technological University, 1999, p.1) If you suspect someone of cheating, talk first with the individual in case there is a legitimate explanation, then the instructor, advisor or departmental chair, as appropriate.