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Gerardo Camilo, Ph.D.


Courses Taught

General Ecology, Ecological Ethics, Biometry, Advanced Biometry


Ph.D. in Zoology, Texas Tech University

Research Interests

Camilo's research focuses on understanding the role that space has on ecological processes and structures. Most of his work centers around populations and communities of bee pollinators in urban environments. Over half of all the human population already live in cities, and it is expected that by 2050 two out of every three people will live in a city. Understanding how ecosystem services, like the pollination of crops, are affected by the urban environment is of crucial importance. Cities are complex structures comprised of industrial, residential and green spaces of different sizes across a network of roads, sewers, power lines, etc. Furthermore, differences in social, economic and cultural status also affects how people use and alter ecosystem processes in cities. Camilo's work has shown that bees in St. Louis city are responding the many of these parameters.

Labs and Facilities

There are several research opportunities for students in Camilo's lab. Biodiversity distribution in green public spaces in relation to income inequalities, Ecology of insect-plant interactions in tropical systems and Statistical ecology of vector species. Please contact Camilo via email for more information.

Camilo Lab website:

Publications and Media Placements

Bernhardt, P, G. R. Camilo, and P. H. Weston. 2019. Shaken vs. scraped: Floral presentation to pollinator guild in co-blooming Symphionema montanum and Isopogon anemofolius (Proteaceae). The Gardens Bulletin Singapore (In press)

Edens-Meier, R., Ren, Z-X., M. Arduser, G. R. Camilo and P. Bernhardt. 2019. Breeding systems and pollination ecology ofUvularia grandiflora Smith (Colchicaceae). Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society (In Press)

Kleinschmidt, L.M., M. E. Kinney, G. R. Camilo, T. Thier, M. Fischer, C. S. Hanley, and L. R. Padilla. 2018. COMPARISON OF PROPOFOL CONSTANT RATE INFUSION AND ISOFLURANE FOR MAINTENANCE OF ANESTHESIA IN SPEKE’S GAZELLE, GAZELLA SPEKEI. Journal of Zoo and Veterinary Medicine 49(3):722-731

Numbere, A.O. and Camilo, G.R. 2018. Structural characteristics, above‐ground biomass and productivity of mangrove forest situated in areas with different levels of pollution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. African Journal of Ecology 1–11.

Camilo, G. R., P. A. Muñiz, M. S. Arduser, and E. M. Spevak. 2018. A checklist of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 90(3):175-188

Edens-Meier, R., M. Arduser, G. R. Camilo and P. Bernhardt. 2018. Comparative pollination ecology between two populations and two varieties of Cypripedium parviflorum (Orchidaceae) in Missouri: Does Size Matter? Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 186(4):544–559,

Domic, A. I., P. Bernhardt, R. Edens-Meier, G. R. Camilo and J. A. Capriles. 2017. Pollination ecology of Polylepis tomentella, an Andean anemophilous tree presenting a potential floral fungal infection. International Journal of Plant Sciences DOI:10.1086/692504

Bernhardt, P., R. Edens-Meier, D. Jocson, J. Zweck, Z.-X. Ren, G. R. Camilo, M. Arduser. 2016. Comparative floral ecology of bicolor and concolor morphs of Viola pedata L. (Violaceae) following controlled burns. Journal of Pollination Ecology 19:57-71.

Numbere, A. O. and G. R. Camilo. 2016. Mangrove leaf litter decomposition under mangrove forest stands with different levels of pollution in the Niger River Delta, Nigeria. African Journal of Ecology DOI: 10.1111/aje.12335

Numbere, A. O., and Camilo, G. R. 2016. Herbivory along a hydrocarbon pollution gradient in the mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa) of the Niger River Delta, Nigeria. African Journal of Ecology (in press)

Wang, P., Numbere, A. O., and Camilo, G. R. 2016. Long-term changes in the mangrove landscape of the Niger river delta, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 12 (3): 248.259

Burr, A., Shaeg, N. Muñiz, P. A., Camilo, G. R. and Hall, D. H. 2016. Wild Bees in the City: Reimagining Urban Spaces for Pollinator Health. Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development 16:106-131.

Hall, D. M., Camilo, G. R. , Tonietto, R. K., et al. 2016. The city as a refuge for insect pollinators: conservation for the city. Conservation Biology DOI:10.1111/cobi.12840

Domic, A. & G. R. Camilo. 2014. Seed germination performance of an Andean wind-pollinated tree: From fruits to populations. Forest Ecology and Management doi:fem/S03781.12714.0011.69

Ren, Z-X., H. Wang, P. Bernhardt, G. R. Camilo, & D-J. Li. 2014. Which food-mimic floral trait and environmental factors influence the fecundity in a rare orchid, Calanthe yaoshanensis? Journal of the Linnean Botanical Society 176, 421-433. DOI:10.1111/boj.12213

Domic, A. I., Mamani, E., & Camilo, G. 2013. Fenología reproductiva de la kewiña (Polylepis tomentella, Rosaceae) en la puna semihúmeda de Chuquisaca (Bolivia). Ecología en Bolivia, 48:31-45.

Domic, A. I, G. R. Camilo & J. M. Capriles. 2013. Small-scale farming and grazing reduce regeneration of Polylepis tomentella (Rosaceae) in the semiarid Andes of Bolivia. Biotropica. DOI: 10.1111/btp.12075

Asa, C. S., Bauman, K. L., Devery, S., Zordan, M., Camilo, G. R., Boutelle, S., & Moresco, A. 2013. Factors associated with uterine endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in wild canids: implications for fertility. Zoo Biology. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21069

Brokaw et al. 2012. Response to disturbance. Pp. 201-268 in Brokaw et al., eds. A Caribbean forest tapestry: the multidimensional nature of disturbance and response. Oxford University Press.

McDowell et al. 2012. Geographical and ecological setting. Pp. 42-72 268 in Brokaw et al., eds. A Caribbean forest tapestry: the multidimensional nature of disturbance and response. Oxford University Press.

Ghebretinsae, A. G., S. A. Graham, G. R. Camilo and J. C. Barber. 2008. Natural infraspecific variation in fatty acid composition of Cuphea (Lythraceae) seed oils. Industrial Crops and Products 27:279-287.

Dumonceaux, G. A., J. E. Bauman, and G. R. Camilo. 2006. Evaluation of progesterone levels un feces of captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 37:255-261.

Camilo, G. R. 2005. Managemen, heterogeneity, and landscape diversity of the Missouri Ozarks. Pp. 161-168 in A. C. Newstad, E. D. Lowenstein & G. Iffrig (eds) Fifty Years of Sustainable Forestry in the Ozarks: A symposium honoring Pioneer Forest. USDA Forest Service, Northcentral Experiment Forest Station General Technical Communication GN-136.

Salick, J. et al. 2003, Intellectual imperatives in ethnobotany. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, MO.

Professional Organizations and Associations

Conservation Fellows, St. Louis Zoo