Saint Louis University

Unsustainable Ordinances

YardFaculty: Dr. Damon Hall

Urban homeowners can create suitable habitat for many native wildlife, including species of pollinators (e.g., bees, butterflies, moths) experiencing declines.1,2

Recent research finds urban areas provide refuge for solitary and eusocial bee species not found in nearby rural areas.3 This project examines municipal ordinances and their effects on urban habitat.

Preliminary research has found that some municipal codes prevent sustainable land-use practices (e.g., growing native vegetation, managing stormwater, etc.) that support pollinator species. This research links land-use policy research with ongoing social and ecological field research.

We anticipate that findings will encourage a more robust discussion about municipal landscaping codes in relationship to pollinator health, stormwater management needs, and water-conservation.


1. Hernandez, J. L., Frankie, G. W., Thorp, R. W. (2009). Ecology of urban bees: A review of current knowledge and directions for future study. Cities and the Environment, 2(1), 3.

2. da Silva Mouga, D. M. D., Feretti, V., de Sena, J. C., Warkentin, M., dos Santos, A. K. G., & Ribeiro, C. L. (2015). Ornamental bee plants as foraging resources for urban bees in southern Brazil. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 365–381. doi:10.4236/as.2015.63037

3. Sirohi, M., Jackson, J. I., Edwards, M., Ollerton, J. (2015). Diversity and abundance of solitary and primitively eusocial bees in an urban centre a case study from Northampton UK. Journal of Insect Conservation. doi:10.1007/s10841-015-9769-2.

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