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Endocrinology Fellowship Program

The endocrinology fellowship program at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine provides comprehensive patient care services, education and research experience pertinent to endocrine disorders.

Our division provides inpatient and outpatient consultation services to a diverse patient population with a wide range of endocrine disorders at the SSM Health Saint Louis University Hospital and VA Saint Louis Health Care System.

The ambulatory care service at the Center for Specialized Medicine is enhanced by an active thyroid ultrasound and biopsy clinic coordinated with onsite cytopathology, as well as a busy diabetes clinic with exposure to the latest technologies in diabetic care.

The inpatient consultation service responds to daily requests ranging from diabetes management to complex endocrine and metabolic disorders. The endocrine division coordinates care with tertiary referral services including otolaryngology, neurosurgery and oncology among other specialties.

How to Apply

You may apply for one of our two endocrinology fellowship positions through the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS). All of our positions are filled through the National Residency Match Program (NRMP).

Applicants must have passed the USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 and must expect to complete a three-year internal medicine residency in an ACGME-accredited program. International medical graduates holding J1 visas are considered.

The program identifier on the AMA FREIDA Online website is 143-28-21-080. 

Training and Didactic Teaching

The division offers two clinical fellowship training positions each academic year. In addition to daily teaching rounds and supervised outpatient clinics, the curriculum includes core lectures, grand rounds, formal case presentations, bone densitometry practicums, evidence-based medicine conferences, journal club, quality improvement project updates, and monthly joint adult/pediatric endocrinology conferences. A one-month rotation in pediatric endocrinology and a one-month rotation in reproductive endocrinology/high-risk obstetrics are assigned during Year 1 and Year 2 respectively.

The endocrinology core curriculum and board review are delivered as a comprehensive systems-based lecture series given by faculty throughout the academic year. Endocrinology faculty and fellows participate in the general internal medicine training program at SSM Health Saint Louis University Hospital. The division contributes to medical education in the community through Internal Medicine Grand Rounds, invited symposia, diabetes and endocrinology symposia.

Clinical rotations are divided into one-month blocks in which the first-year fellows have four months on the in-patient consultation service of SSM Health Saint Louis University Hospital (SSM), three months at the outpatient Veterans’ Administration Medical Center (VAMC), one month in outpatient pediatric endocrinology and four months for research. The second-year fellows have three months each at SSM and VAMC, a one-month rotation in reproductive endocrinology/high-risk obstetrics and five months for research.

The rotations are described below:

Research Rotation: Weekly Schedule 2021-2022
  Clinic Faculty
Monday morning General Endocrinology Clinic

Alan Silverberg, M.D.

Sandeep Dhindsa, M.D.

Monday afternoon

General Endocrinology Clinic

Second/fourth week Men’s Health at UClub Tower

Stewart Albert, M.D.,

Sandeep Dhindsa, M.D.,

Alan Silverberg, M.D.

Tuesday morning

Type 1 Diabetes/Technology clinic

Stewart Albert, M.D.,

Tuesday afternoon

General Endocrinology Clinic

Sandeep Dhindsa, M.D.

Stewart Albert, M.D.

Wednesday morning Endocrine Conference  
Wednesday afternoon

Fellows Continuity Clinic

Stewart Albert, M.D.,
Sandeep Dhindsa, M.D.
Thursday morning

General Endocrinology Clinic

Thyroid Ultrasound/Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy Clinic

Alan Silverberg, M.D.


Thursday afternoon

General Endocrinology Clinic

Alan Silverberg, M.D.,

Stewart Albert, M.D.,

Sandeep Dhindsa, M.D.

Friday morning

General Endocrinology Clinic

Thyroid US/FNA Clinic

Alan Silverberg, M.D.

Friday afternoon Thyroid US/FNA Alan Silverberg, M.D.

** Fellows with active research projects should be participating in research in lieu of clinic, discuss with Drs. Albert and Dhindsa.

Fellows with active research projects are required to attend the Type 1 diabetes /Technology, Fellows Continuity Clinics, Men’s Health Clinic once a month and Dr. Dhindsa’s Tuesday afternoon clinic once a month. Otherwise, the fellow should be participating in research in lieu of other clinics and will discuss with Drs. Albert and Dhindsa at the beginning of each month’s rotation.

SLU Consult Hospital Rotation: Weekly Schedule 2021-2022
  Clinic Faculty
Monday morning Hospital consults/Clinic On-call attending
Monday afternoon Hospital consults/Clinic On-call attending
Tuesday morning Hospital consults/Clinic

On-call attending

Tuesday afternoon Hospital consults/Clinic On-call attending
Wednesday morning Endocrine Conference  

Wednesday afternoon

Fellows Continuity Clinic Stewart Albert, M.D.,
Sandeep Dhindsa, M.D.
Thursday morning

Hospital consults/Clinic


On-call attending

Thursday afternoon

Hospital consults/Clinic


On-call attending

Friday morning Hospital consults/Clinic On-call attending
Friday afternoon Hospital consults

On-call attending


*The fellow assigned to SLU hospital consults will be responsible for inpatient consults and inpatient rounds with the attending of the month. When the fellow is not engaged with inpatient duties, he/she will attend clinic at the SLUCare Center for Specialized Medicine. 

Veterans Administration Medical Center Rotation: Weekly Schedule 2021-2022
  Clinic Faculty
Monday morning VA Endocrinology Clinic VA Faculty
Monday afternoon VA Endocrinology Clinic VA Faculty
Tuesday morning Type 1 Diabetes/ Technology clinic Stewart Albert, M.D.
Tuesday afternoon VA Prep Time  
Wednesday morning Endocrinology Conference  
Wednesday afternoon

Fellows Continuity Clinic

Stewart Albert, M.D.,
Sandeep Dhindsa, M.D.
Thursday morning VA Diabetes Clinic Humaira Naseer, M.D.
Thursday afternoon VA Diabetes Clinic Humaira Naseer, M.D.
Friday morning Thyroid US/FNA  Alan Silverberg, M.D.
Friday afternoon Thyroid US/FNA  Alan Silverberg, M.D.

*VA “prep time” reserved for VA patient follow-up or reading. The fellow does not need to be at the VA Medical Center or logged-in to the VA computer system, but should not engage in non-VA clinical activity.

Endocrinology Core Curriculum 2021

  • Practicum: Thyroid Ultrasound Practicum: Alan Silverberg, M.D.
  • Amy Clark, D.O.: Puberty and pubertal disorders
  • Kathryn Jackson, M.D.: Growth disorders
  • Stewart  Albert, M.D.: Adrenal insufficiency; adrenal hyperfunction; posterior pituitary; lipid metabolism; diabetic foot and ophthalmology practicum
  • Raymond Bourey, M.D.(on sabbatical July - December 2021): Medical management of obesity and hypoglycemia
  • Sandeep Dhindsa, M.D.: Male hypogonadism; transgender medicine; and disorders of sexual development
  • Alan Silverberg, M.D.: Calcium and Vitamin D metabolism (two sessions); DXA interpretation ; and osteoporosis
  • Eliot Katz, M.D.: Thyroid function testing, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
  • Sandeep Dhindsa, M.D. and Stewart Albert, M.D.: Diabetes mellitus; introduction to insulins, pharmacologic management of type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Alan Silverberg, M.D.: Thyroid nodules/cancer, part 1; thyroid nodules/cancer, part 2; anterior pituitary


Research within the division of endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism focuses on human clinical and translational studies. Endocrine fellows have exposure to all aspects of research, including protocol development, patient recruitment and follow-up during trial, laboratory methodology and data analysis.

Our faculty have expertise in the following areas:

  • Hypogonadism in obese men
  • Mechanisms underlying hypertension in obesity
  • Metabolic consequences of sleep apnea
  • Pharmacologic management of type 2 diabetes  mellitus
  • Diabetes technology
  • Thyroid disorders and thyroid cancer

The division is currently recruiting subjects for the following studies:

  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in obese young males
  • Metformin and gastrointestinal intolerance
  • TRAVERSE study is evaluating MACE with five-year treatment of androgel. Recruitment is limited to men with established CVD
  • Role of testosterone in NASH

Facilities include a clinical research center and a fully equipped research laboratory, and a research staff composed of a nurse coordinator, laboratory technician and laboratory supervisor.

The research center has three patient-exam rooms, one room with a bed for prolonged infusions, a phlebotomy station and offices. The laboratory has 700 square feet of space supplied with a biosafety hood, 2 tissue culture incubators, including one that can be used for hypoxia research, phase contrast and dissecting microscopes, refrigerated centrifuges,  protein electrophoresis and Western blot apparatus, a PCR machine and a -80 degree freezer. Departmental equipment available for our use on the same floor includes real-time RT-PCR machines, a multifunctional plate reader, digital imaging for protein quantification, NanoDrop spectrophotometry, SpeedVac vacuum system, Milli-Q water system, protein purification system, equipment for large scale bacteria culture, and high-speed and ultra-centrifuges. Immunohistochemistry services along with access to advanced microscopy systems including electron microscopes, and fixed and live cell confocal equipment are available through the pathology core. In addition, flow cytometry is available through a core facility. We have combined 30-plus years of basic research experience.

Recent Faculty Publications
  • Dhindsa S, Zhang N, McPhaul MJ, Wu Z, Ghoshal AK, Erlich EC, Mani K, Randolph GJ, Edwards JR, Mudd PA, Diwan A. Association of Circulating Sex Hormones With Inflammation and Disease Severity in Patients With COVID-19 JAMA Netw Open. 2021 May 3;4(5):e2111398. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11398.
  •  Dandona P, Dhindsa S, Ghanim H, Saad F. Mechanisms underlying the metabolic actions of testosterone in humans: A narrative review Diabetes Obes Metab. 2021 Jan;23(1):18-28. doi: 10.1111/dom.14206. Epub 2020 Oct 19.
  •  Haider KS, Haider A, Saad F, Doros G, Hanefeld M, Dhindsa S, Dandona P, Traish A. Remission of type 2 diabetes following long-term treatment with injectable testosterone undecanoate in patients with hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes: 11-year data from a real-world registry study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020 Nov;22(11):2055-2068. doi: 10.1111/dom.14122. Epub 2020 Jul 15.
  • Ghanim H, Dhindsa S, Batra M, Green K, Abuaysheh S, Kuhadiya ND, Makdissi A, Chaudhuri A, Sandhu S, Dandona P. Testosterone Increases the Expression and Phosphorylation of AMP Kinase α in Men With Hypogonadism and Type 2 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 1;105(4):1169-75. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgz288.
  • Sarkar M, Yates K, Suzuki A, Lavine J, Gill R, Ziegler T, Terrault N, Dhindsa S. Low Testosterone Is Associated With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Fibrosis Severity in Men. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Feb;19(2):400-402.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.11.053. Epub 2019 Dec 5.
  • Dhindsa S, Ghanim H, Green K, Abuaysheh S, Batra M, Makdissi A, Chaudhuri A, Sandhu S, Dandona P. Acute effects of insulin on skeletal muscle growth and differentiation genes in men with type 2 diabetes Eur J Endocrinol. 2019 Dec;181(6):K55-K59. doi: 10.1530/EJE-19-0514.
  • Dhindsa S, Sharma A, Al-Khazaali A, Sitaula S, Nadella S, McKee A, Albert S, Bourey R, Dandona P. Intravenous Insulin Versus Conservative Management in Hypertriglyceridemia-Associated Acute Pancreatitis. J Endocr Soc. 2019 Nov 18;4(1):bvz019. doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvz019. eCollection 2020 Jan 1.
  • Ghanim H, Dhindsa S, Green K, Abuaysheh S, Batra M, Makdissi A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P. Increase in Osteocalcin Following Testosterone Therapy in Men With Type 2 Diabetes and Subnormal Free Testosterone. J Endocr Soc. 2019 Jul 1;3(8):1617-1630. doi: 10.1210/js.2018-00426. eCollection 2019 Aug 1.
  • Ghanim H, Dhindsa S, Batra M, Green K, Abuaysheh S, Kuhadiya ND, Makdissi A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P. Effect of Testosterone on FGF2, MRF4, and Myostatin in Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: Relevance to Muscle Growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Jun 1;104(6):2094-2102. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-01832.
  • Dhindsa S, Ghanim H, Batra M, Dandona P. Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in Men With Diabesity. Diabetes Care. 2018 Jul;41(7):1516-1525. doi: 10.2337/dc17-2510.
  • Dhindsa S, Ghanim H, Dandona P. Letter to the Editor: "Long-Term Testosterone Administration on Insulin Sensitivity in Older Men With Low or Low-Normal Testosterone Levels" J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 May 1;103(5):2069-2070. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00265.
  • Dhindsa SS, Irwig MS, Wyne K. Gonadopenia and Aging in Men. Endocr Pract. 2018 Apr;24(4):375-385. doi: 10.4158/EP-2017-0131.
  • Dandona P, Ghanim H, Abuaysheh S, Green K, Dhindsa S, Makdissi A, Batra M, Kuhadiya ND, Chaudhuri A. Exenatide Increases IL-1RA Concentration and Induces Nrf-2‒Keap-1‒Regulated Antioxidant Enzymes: Relevance to β-Cell Function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar 1;103(3):1180-1187. doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-02343.
  • Ghanim H, Dhindsa S, Abuaysheh S, Batra M, Kuhadiya ND, Makdissi A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P. Diminished androgen and estrogen receptors and aromatase levels in hypogonadal diabetic men: reversal with testosterone. Eur J Endocrinol. 2018 Mar;178(3):277-283. doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0673. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
  • Dhindsa S, Chemitiganti R, Ghanim H, Santiago E, Haider A, Chaar N, Mok M, McKee A, Dandona P. Intranasal Insulin Administration Does Not Affect LH Concentrations in Men with Diabetes. Int J Endocrinol. 2018 Oct 31;2018:6170154. doi: 10.1155/2018/6170154. eCollection 2018.
  • Sharma A, Bourey RE, Edwards JC, Brink DS, Albert SG. Nephrotic range proteinuria associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis reversed with pioglitazone therapy in a patient with Dunnigan type lipodystrophy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2021 Feb;172:108620. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108620. Epub 2020 Dec 13.
  • Albert SG, Sitaula S. Etomidate, Adrenal Insufficiency and Mortality Associated With Severity of Illness: A Meta-Analysis. J Intensive Care Med. 2020 Sep 10:885066620957596. doi: 10.1177/0885066620957596. Online ahead of print.
  • McKee A, Al-Khazaali A, Albert SG. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists versus Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitors for Treatment of T2DM J Endocr Soc. 2020 Mar 20;4(5):bvaa037. doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa037. eCollection 2020 May 1.
  • Zhang R, Gupta D, Albert SG. Pheochromocytoma as a reversible cause of cardiomyopathy: Analysis and review of the literature Int J Cardiol. 2017 Dec 15;249:319-323. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.07.014.
  • Albert SG, Reddy S. Clinical Evaluation of Cost Efficacy of Drugs for Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Meta-Analysis. Endocr Pract. 2017 Jul;23(7):841-856. doi: 10.4158/EP161678.RA. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
  • Weiss EP, Jordan RC, Frese EM, Albert SG, Villareal DT. Effects of Weight Loss on Lean Mass, Strength, Bone, and Aerobic Capacity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Jan;49(1):206-217. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001074.
  • Gupta D, Kirn M, Jamkhana ZA, Lee R, Albert SG, Rollins KM. A unified Hyperglycemia and Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) insulin infusion protocol based on an Excel algorithm and implemented via Electronic Medical Record (EMR) in Intensive Care Units. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2017 Oct-Dec;11(4):265-271. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2016.09.008. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
  • Weiss EP, Reeds DN, Ezekiel UR, Albert SG, Villareal DT. Circulating cytokines as determinants of weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity. Endocrine. 2017 Jan;55(1):153-164. doi: 10.1007/s12020-016-1093-4. Epub 2016 Sep 7.
  • Morley JE, Sanford A, Bourey R. Sleep Apnea: A Geriatric Syndrome. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017 Nov 1;18(11):899-904. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2017.08.020.

Visiting Residents

Rotators are expected to attend scheduled conferences and be present in both an outpatient clinic and inpatient hospital setting on a daily basis. Rotators are responsible for their parking and meal fees. This is not a salaried rotation. 

Sponsoring institutions must contact our program coordinator via email 60 days before the requested rotation is required. (If the requested rotation is not available, a mutually agreed upon request will be considered.) In addition:

  • Rotators must hold a current Missouri license (no exceptions).
  • All rotations requested must be at a four-week interval, no exceptions.
  • Upon approval by our program director, our program coordinator will send the required documents to the sponsoring institution's coordinator via email for completion.
  • Upon completion, the sponsoring institution will return three original completed signed documents and required attachments to the address listed on the form.

Any resident rotating will be required to complete the following, unless they are a SLU employee:

  • Epic training (Usually one full day on-site and an online module.)
  • Obtain a SLU ID

You will not be able to complete a rotation at Saint Louis University until all requirements are met and approval has been authorized. 

*The division does not currently sponsor observerships.