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2015 Scholarship of Teaching & Learning Symposium

Boosting the Confidence Levels in Adult Students

Anbreen Bashir

There are many factors that are important and can play a role in how students perform in their education. Examples of such factors are anxiety, under preparedness, overconfidence, lack of resources and even lack of confidence (Eisenberg, 1991). Lack of confidence is an interesting factor that has a major impact on test results. This factor is especially critical if the students are being reintroduced to a subject after a long time. Our study focuses on the lack of confidence factor in adult students (above 45 years of age) returning to school after more than five years of gap. Various conventional methods have been used to boost the confidence level in these students. Our study shows that using the conventional, "chalk and board" teaching method with moments of reflecting back, is the most efficient way to work with such students and hence help improve their grades.
Hypothesis: Using technology in teaching is the best way to boost the confidence and improve the test scores of adult students.
Methods: Two groups of students (above 45 years of age returning to school after more than five years gap) were taught same topics (six). For one group the instructional methodology included power point presentations and videos, and for the other group the instructional methodology included the conventional chalk and board. The exams given to both the groups were the same. The exam question format was mixed style including multiple choice questions, short type answers, essay questions, fill in the blanks and true or false.
Results: The overall average grade for the conventional instructional method was 80% and the overall average grade for the non-conventional instruction method was 74.56%.
Conclusion: The results suggest that technology is not the best way to improve scores and confidence levels of adult students. The adults that return to school need reassurance to bring their confidence levels up. This reassurance can be achieved by using the conventional method where a teacher pauses while lecturing looks at the students and tries to gauge if they are following the instructions and sometimes even modifies the diagrams, draws arrows, writes additional words based on the need in class (Meyers and Jones, 1993). There is more eye contact involved when the students are taught using conventional methods and that reassures the students that they have the full support of the teacher (Kleine, 1986). The impression that the students get from the non-conventional methods is that teacher is not a core part of the whole process and that they are left to the mercy of the slides presented to them (Mark et al, 2007).
This is a preliminary study. We need enough students to form a third group that uses both the instructional methods (conventional and non-conventional). Also we need to compare the same methodology with different age groups.

Introductory Biology Students' Conceptual Models of Genetic Information Flow Improve Independently of their Approaches to Learning

Ranya Taqieddin

The flow of information, a core concept of biology, is particularly challenging for students. Understanding how genetic information stored in DNA results in a phenotype requires that learners integrate concepts and processes across multiple levels of biological organization (molecular, cellular, and organismal). We adopted a model-based approach to teaching and learning about the flow of genetic information in a first-semester introductory biology course on cell and molecular biology, genetics and animal form and function. Model-based pedagogies challenge students to think abstractly and to synthesize their understanding of complex multi-level processes into simplified conceptual representations. We are exploring whether learners who preferentially adopt different approaches to studying (or learning orientations: deep, surface or strategic) develop similarly accurate and meaningful models. Briefly, deep learners tend to seek meaning and connections among concepts, surface learners tend more toward rote memorization, and strategic learners adapt to assessment demands and to course context.
Throughout the semester, students iteratively built conceptual models representing how genetic Variation arises and lead to Phenotypic variation (VtP models). We analyzed student-constructed VtP models at four time points during the semester (post-instruction homework, exam 1, midterm exam, final exam). For this study, we focused on students' ability to generate "functional" models, i.e. complete and coherent representations of the flow of genetic information. Specifically, we investigated whether student models included and appropriately connected the processes of mutation, transcription, translation, and phenotypic expression. Analysis of VtP models for students who completed all four assessments (n=112) showed that model functionality, as a measure of how many key processes were included and appropriately connected, significantly improved throughout the course of the semester. Overall improvement was specifically due to students gradually learning to incorporate and appropriately connect (a) mutation as the origin of genetic variation, and - statistically significant - (b) phenotype expression as an outcome of protein function.
Students' self-reported approaches to studying were determined by their responses to an adapted version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST; Entwistle, 2000). Survey response rate was 76%; we identified 27 students as "deep", 38 as "surface", and 27 as "strategic" learners. Our preliminary data suggested that strategic learners may be more attuned to the meaning (or function) of their whole models than to the accuracy of details within the model itself. However, we did not detect statistically significant differences in model functionality among the three groups of students reporting different learning approaches. If supported by further analysis, these initial findings would indicate that (a) initial ability to construct complete and coherent VtP models, and (b) model improvement over time, are independent of students' learning approach. We will discuss the significance and possible implications of these findings for model-based instruction.

Creating a YouTube Playlist for the Middleboro Casebook

Jeremy Green, Nicholas Moliterno, and Sobia Shahab

Case teaching is a popular method of management education but its relationship with technology is complicated. There have been some efforts on case teaching in hybrid and distance learning courses, but proponents of case teaching generally emphasize case discussions as in-class activity immune to technological advances thought to threaten residential education. Traditionally, cases are taught using a chalk and talk lecture to facilitate class discussions. A more recent development is the use of multimedia in case teaching. Between 2000 and 2015, Harvard Business School Press published 49 multimedia cases, but mostly on the manufacturing industry and only one on the health care services industry. The purpose of this project is to create multimedia content for an undergraduate course in health management, and to explore its influence on student experiences and learning outcomes.
The Middleboro Casebook can be found on syllabi across the country and in recent years has been the center of discussions on innovative teaching at national faculty conferences. A unique feature of the book is that it contains no discussion questions or assignments which encourages faculty to create their own assignments containing additional material. Topics and additional materials for the course were curated by the instructor and carefully selected to enhance the casebook. Nonfictional materials were added to the cases since the casebook itself is fictional. These additional materials included scholarly literature, newspaper articles, blog posts, and YouTube videos. The YouTube playlist for The Middleboro Casebook could enhance student experiences and learning outcomes. Videos appeal to senses of sight and sound that readings do not and should help students to become excited about the topics and retain information from the materials. Assignment letters related the readings and videos to the casebook and encouraged critical thinking. .
Currently, 50 students are enrolled across two sections of the class and are completing their assignment letters in small group discussions. Student experiences will be measured with the university wide standard Small Group Instructor Feedback at the middle of the semester with the IDEA Student Ratings of Instruction System at course conclusion. Learning outcomes will be analyzed by performing a content analysis of the completed group assignment letters and relating student performance on the activities to competency-based learning objectives that emphasize the development of critical thinking and written communications skills.
Next steps are to prepare an abstract for presentation at the 2016 Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA) Annual Meeting and a manuscript submission for publication in the Journal of Health Administration Education. The playlist will be shared on the AUPHA Innovative Teaching, Management, Policy, and Public Health faculty forums to facilitate its use with courses in other disciplines and at other institutions. Further work will include designing a randomized controlled trial measuring outcomes associated with student access to the playlist, assigning groups of students to record their own video responses to the assignment letters, and a more detailed study of the types of videos that best supplement cases, i.e. newsreels or Khan Academy, and the effects of video length.

Do Hands-On Activities Improve Learning in an Engineering Mechanics Course?

Michelle Sabick, Laura C. Feamster, Andrea Fischer, and Joao Lopez

Introductory engineering courses such as physics and mechanics can be difficult for students to grasp because they often discuss concepts that are difficult to visualize. One tool often employed to help students understand these concepts and correctly solve mechanics problems is the free body diagram (FBD), a two-dimensional representation of one member of interest in a mechanics problem and the forces and moments acting on that member. FBDs are often graded components of test questions in mechanics and they can be very useful to students in solving problems correctly. In addition, FBDs provide a good indication of the student's understanding of the material.
This study seeks to compare the relative merits of two course delivery styles: one with a more traditional lecture set up (two large group lecture hall 75-minute meetings per week) and another with more emphasis on hands-on activities to demonstrate the concepts, in creating deep understanding of mechanics concepts. For the version with more hands-on activities, a series of fifteen 75-minute small group hands-on activities were incorporated into what is normally a standard lecture-style course (one 75-minute large-group lecture hall meeting per week and one 75-minute small-group hands-on meeting per week). The hands-on activities were designed to reinforce students' deep understanding of basic statics concepts and help students overcome misperceptions. Both courses were taught by the same instructor in successive spring semesters during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 academic years.
The effectiveness of each style will be quantified by comparing students' overall course grade outcomes as well as by their specific performance in creating FBDs on final examinations in both courses. In addition, the time-sequence of students' improvement in using FBDs will be evaluated for the hands-on course by evaluating FBDs across a series of four exams throughout the semester long course. The students' effectiveness in applying free-body diagrams will be quantified using a scoring rubric on specific problems from de-identified scanned student exams (Rosengrant et al., 2009). In addition, comparison of final exam performance from the Spring 2013 final exam (no hands-on activities) to the Spring 2014 final exam (hands-on activities) will be compared using the same rubric. In addition, two additional rubrics-one assessing students' understanding of moments of force and one assessing their problem solving ability overall-will be developed as part of this ongoing project.

Evaluation of a Text Messaging Curriculum in Pediatric Graduate Medical Education

Matthew Broom and Amy Ladley

Background: The duty-hour restrictions implemented in 2011 by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education have raised considerable concerns regarding the duration and quality of education for residents. It is imperative for residency programs to address educational concerns related to duty-hour restrictions and to find viable alternative methods to educate residents. One way to maximize educational yield is catering to residents' preferred methods of communication. Text messaging is a powerful avenue for reaching residents quickly and effectively, but its utility in educating residents has hardly been evaluated. Though the feasibility of texting has been demonstrated, its ability to improve standardized test scores and provide insight on resident texting preferences is lacking. Building on previous work, we have revised our text-messaging program (Text4Peds) to explore these ends and designed the present study. We hypothesized that 1) Q&A texts would be the preferred message format among pediatric residents, and 2) tailoring categories of messages with American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) content specific information would result in a greater performance improvement in those areas when compared to content areas not highlighted by text messages.
Objectives: Evaluate pediatric resident 1) satisfaction with a hybrid question-and-answer (Q&A) texting format and 2) pre-post pediatric in-training exam (ITE) performance.
Design/Methods: A prospective study with pediatrics and internal medicine-pediatrics residents. Residents were divided into subgroups: adolescent medicine (AM) and developmental medicine (DM). Program messages (n=120), were primarily derived from topics and themes found among the most-missed pediatric ITE questions among SLU pediatric residents in 2012 and 2013. Messages were sent Monday-Friday at two o'clock in the afternoon, so as not to interrupt morning rounds and scheduled educational didactics. The majority of messages (72%, n=86) were a one-way message of a concise and commonly tested facts ("pearls"), the remaining (28%, n=34) of messages (one message per week) were presented in Q&A format, requesting a response from the user. Messages were further categorized into the general pediatric licensing exam subtypes published by the ABP. Residents completed surveys gauging perceptions of the program and pre- and post-program ITE scores were analyzed.
Results: Of 61 residents, 41 (67%) enrolled in the six-month program; 32 (78%) completed a post program survey. Of those, 21 (66%) preferred a Q&A format with an immediate text response versus information-only texts. Regarding program feasibility, participants received 4708 (86%) of 5446 sent messages. The percent change in ITE scores between 2013 and 2014 was significant. Comparing subgroups, there was no significant difference between the percent change in ITE score, and neither group performed significantly better on either the adolescent or developmental section of the ITE.
Conclusions: A text message-based curriculum for pediatric resident education was successfully implemented in our residency program. Messages were delivered with a high success rate and residents found educational value in the messages. Overall, participants improved their ITE score, but no improvement was seen in the targeted subgroups on the exam. While Q&A texts are preferred by residents, further assessment is required to assess their effect on educational outcomes.

Longitudinal Underserved Community Curriculum

Christine Jacobs

Research Question: Can a longitudinal curriculum in underserved community health during family medicine residency affect knowledge, attitudes, confidence and likelihood of practicing in an underserved community?
The Longitudinal Underserved Community Curriculum (LUCC) is a project of the Saint Louis University Family Medicine Residency (SLUFMR), established July 2011 with a mission of training ""clinically skilled, academically trained family physicians committed to practicing in an urban setting and improving the health of underserved families/populations."" The LUCC is designed to increase resident knowledge, clinical skills, and personal commitment to care for underserved patients and families. The project includes educational and community engagement activities, targeted resident recruiting, and the formulation and dissemination of a curriculum tool for use in other residencies.
Methods: Residents attended monthly hour-long lectures throughout the residency and twelve monthly day-long seminars during postgraduate year (PGY)-2 which focused on aspects of caring for underserved patients. A pre- and post-curriculum study design assessed knowledge gain in each content area, as well as self-reported Likert-scale ratings of attitudes, beliefs, and confidence related to underserved care. Qualitative data were collected at focus groups after each year of seminars.
Outcomes: The project began September 30, 2011, and is currently in its fourth year. Resident questionnaires revealed positive changes in attitudes and knowledge related to underserved care. Following completion of the curriculum, nearly all (85.7%) of participants felt confident or totally confident in their ability to incorporate culturally relevant information into a treatment plan. Over half of the participants (57.1%) reported feeling extremely well aware of the obstacles faced by underserved populations seeking health care and of the relationship among sociocultural background, health and medicine. Knowledge of issues related to underserved populations increased by 38.95% following the seminars and 31.58% following the lectures. There was no apparent increase in likelihood of practicing in an underserved practice setting following completion of the program.
Next steps: The curriculum changes slightly each year through an annual review process. The curriculum and evaluation methods are being shared with other residencies at national conferences. The description of the project is being submitted for publication. The materials are being formatted to be posted in a digital library.

Low Cost, High Fidelity Surgical Simulation Model for Carotid Endarterectomy

Alon Neidich, Christopher Kinsella, and Brian Peterson

Introduction and Objectives: The development of surgical models allows physicians during and after training to acquire and hone new skills. Advances in digital technology have been responsible for the development of a variety of endovascular training options. For open vascular operations, there is a paucity of effective, affordable models for training. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has become an increasingly safe and common procedure in the United States. In 2009 an estimated 140,000 CEAs were performed. The procedure, first developed in the mid 1950s has become the most common vascular surgery procedure performed. Although surgical simulation is gaining in importance in surgical education, limited options exist for CEA practice. A search of commercially available surgical models for carotid endarterectomy was performed. A single carotid endarterectomy trainer was available and listed for $500 USD. Mastery of a procedure involves four phases: 1) accumulation of knowledge 2) supervised performance integration 3) independent execution 4) evaluation of outcomes. We propose the high fidelity, low cost surgical simulation model can play an integral role in facilitating this learning cycle.
Methods: Using generic and household items, construction of a surgically accurate neck model was attempted. Goals of the construction included (1) realistic technical simulation of a carotid endarterectomy, (2) low cost for initial unit, (3) low cost for each unit reuse.
Senior residents assisted junior residents in the CEA procedure after reviewing the anatomy and operative plan under sterile conditions in the operating room with a vascular instrument set.
Results: A high-fidelity surgical model of the neck and its vascular anatomy was constructed. Junior residents were successfully taken through the procedure by senior residents and reported increased comfort with the operation. Further, senior residents reported a greater appreciation for surgical exposure and operative conduct. The material cost of the model and its reuse was $30 and $10, respectively.
Conclusions: Our investigations showcases the opportunity to utilize the high fidelity model for supervised performance integration. Further investigations towards utilizing the model in other phases of learning including accumulation of knowledge during gross anatomy for medical students is actively being pursued.
Furthermore, this model can be utilized for other neck operations for surgeons including tracheostomy and cricothyroidotomy. Our model provides facility for multiple surgeries.
Overall, this model allows for repetitive, deliberate practice towards the acquisition of important surgical skills outside of the operating room. There is a great need for low cost high fidelity models and our work product is the first step towards making open surgical simulation utilitarian and successful.

Patterns of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Undergraduate Introductory Biology Students

Amanda Sebesta

Under social cognitive theory, self-regulated learning (SRL)-the metacognitive ability to monitor and influence one's learning process-involves using strategies to achieve learning goals. SRL has been shown to mediate academic performance in various contexts. Therefore, we investigated SRL strategy use in a learner-centered, large introductory biology course for majors, enrolling mostly freshmen. Introductory biology is notoriously a challenging course; moreover, a learner-centered instructional design may be novel to many students who are transitioning from high school to college. In addition to mastering disciplinary content and skills and applying critical and integrative thinking, students are expected to assume more responsibility and proactive behavior in their studies. In this exploratory study, we determined patterns of SRL strategy use in introductory biology overall and in relation to achievement on course exams. We developed and administered a questionnaire, grounded in Zimmerman's social-cognitive view of SRL, asking students (a) how often they used each of 15 SRL strategies, (b) their exam grade, and (c) their study plan for the following exam. Students in two course sections completed the questionnaire anonymously, and we analyzed pooled data (n=388 for Exam 1, and n=385 for Exam 2). Reported SRL strategy use, in aggregate, did not noticeably change between exams. Regardless of exam grade, students reported most often seeking information on their own (or from peers) to complete assignments, taking notes on what they learn, restructuring their study environment, reviewing their notes, and reviewing the textbook or class recordings. The least frequently reported strategy was seeking instructor or TA assistance. Higher-achieving students reported using particular strategies significantly more frequently than their lower-achieving peers. These included, for both exams, evaluating the quality of their work, seeking information independently, taking notes, using sample exams, and reviewing their own graded assignments. Understanding patterns of self-regulation, especially in relation to grades, may help instructors develop targeted mentoring and interventions for promoting SRL strategies in introductory biology.

Predoctoral Endodontic Education: Extracted Human Teeth vs. Simulated Plastic Teeth

Karl Woodmansey

Purpose: This abstract reports the results of a survey of predoctoral endodontic educators in the U.S and Canada, exploring their programs' use of extracted human and simulated plastic teeth.
Methods: In August 2014, with approval of the University of the Pacific IRB, a hyperlink to a web-based survey consisting of 27 questions was e-mailed to the 67 predoctoral endodontic directors of the dental schools in the US & Canada using an e-mail list provided by the American Association of Endodontists.
Conclusions: Forty predoctoral directors submitted surveys (60%). The findings were varied.
When asked "In your school's PRECLINICAL endodontic laboratory curriculum, what type of teeth are used by students for simulation exercises: (select one)," 16% reported using human teeth, 16% reported using plastic teeth and 26% reported using both types of teeth.
When asked, "If your students use extracted human teeth for laboratory simulation exercises, do your students have an adequate supply these teeth?" 70% reported having an adequate supply and 30% reported an inadequate supply.
When asked, "If there are patient shortages, are simulation exercises using extracted teeth or plastic teeth accepted as substitutes for clinical experiences?" 56% reported permitting substitution while 44% did not.
In an open comments section of the survey, several respondents cited their use of extracted human teeth as the most realistic simulation of live patients. Some respondents preferred using simulated teeth for standardization between students and for examination purposes. Another reported influence is the fact that all regional licensing board examinations, except the Western Regional Examination Board (WREB), utilize plastic teeth. Several respondents cited the ethical issues of using extracted human teeth that may not have been expressly donated with approval or informed consent for such educational uses. Others spoke of the infection control issues related to the use of human teeth.
Depending on the program, contemporary predoctoral endodontic education utilizes both extracted human teeth and simulated teeth composed or various polymers. The directors of the predoctoral endodontic programs appear to have a variety of reasons supporting their choice of teeth.

Problem-based Learning in Health Professions Education

Kristine L'Ecuyer and David Pole

A problem based learning (PBL) framework was utilized in a series of six interprofessional team seminars (IPTS) for post-baccalaureate students from seven health professions. The goal of IPTS was to develop a collaborative practice-ready workforce prepared to respond to patient care needs through use of concrete examples, skills development, critical thinking, and problem solving in safe, faculty-facilitated small groups. The collaborative nature of PBL closely correlates with teaching methodologies of the IPTS series. This study analyzed critical reflection assignments of nursing students in accelerated programs to determine the effectiveness of IPTS at preparing students for interprofessional collaborative practice. Findings indicated that PBL is an effective method for teaching interprofessional collaboration skills to nursing students.

Professional Learning Communities: Teacher Leadership Enhanced

Maria Habboushi

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate whether faculty members in private institutions of higher education in Lebanon engage in learning communities to develop teacher leadership roles. The unit of analysis for this study was comprised of part-time and full-time faculty members teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) at three universities in Lebanon. The population who participated included 275 EFL part-time teachers and full-time teachers. Data collection methods included a survey adapted from the teacher IC Maps in Learning Forward and an email interview, and was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The research questions were: 1- What does teacher leadership mean to individuals in higher education in Lebanon? 2- Do EFL faculty members in higher education in Lebanon engage in learning communities to develop leadership roles? 3- How do EFL faculty members in Lebanon engage in learning communities to develop leadership roles?
115 respondents completed the survey, which makes the return rate 41.8% and was deemed acceptable. Five surveys were eliminated because they were incomplete, and were thus treated as missing data. Analysis of the survey data showed no significant differences related to the practices of the EFL faculty with regards to the standards. All the standards had a low mean score which means that faculty members in higher education in Lebanon do not participate in learning communities as outlined by the standards. Therefore, they do not practice leadership roles. Nine faculty members out of 115 responded to the email interview, which makes the return rate 7.8% and was deemed as unacceptable. However, analysis of the email interviews showed a timid attempt at forming learning communities. These communities were not to enhance professional learning, but to verify students' results or to check that faculty were on par with each other regarding the weekly schedule especially for those who taught in multi-level sections.
The researcher recommends the introduction of the standards to enable teams to collaborate in professional learning communities so that faculty members can match their present behavior to align with the standards to achieve the desired behavior. In addition, the researcher recommends the use of the standards as professional learning for faculty, in light of the absence of professional development opportunities in Lebanon. The use of the standards as professional learning will serve a dual role of improving instructional methods while serving as professional development. Therefore, this would ultimately lead to the end result of teacher leadership which is lacking in Lebanon.

Robotic Simulation in Medical Emergency Care Training

Christine Werner and Wesley Burch

Purpose: Medical emergency care (MEC) using robotic simulation technology was developed for Physician Assistant (PA) students to determine whether educational innovative MEC simulation training improved students' preparedness in assisting with various types of trauma cases, cardiac codes and medically unstable patients in the emergency room. This project fits the DCHS mission to serve humanity through student engagement, education and scholarship.
Methods: Students complete MEC training in their didactic and clinical year using robotic simulation in cardiology and emergency medicine courses. The didactic MEC training consists of procedure skills, team practices, and case scenario practicums. A second MEC case practicum is completed in the clinical year, at the end of their emergency medicine rotation. Students are then surveyed to evaluate their MEC training experience using a five-point Likert scale design with the data analyzed using descriptive statistics with SAS 9.3.
Results: Over 90% of the students either strongly agreed or agreed MEC training using robotic simulation helped prepare them for emergency medicine rotation and it increased their confidence and communication skills while working with MEC cases.
Discussion: MEC training increased students' confidence and preparedness during emergency medicine events. This study supports published research findings that have demonstrated the usefulness of robotic medical simulation in MEC education. This project continues to measure academic and professional outcomes of PA students using robotic simulation for MEC training.

Shaping Professional Behaviors and Attitudes through Professional Service Activities

Cynthia Matlock

Overview: Literature addresses multiple aspects of professionalism, however, nominal information can be found on the student occupational therapist's perceptions of behavior and attitude development. A research study was conducted to explore student perspectives related to professional behaviors and attitudes. Of the three questions, this poster focuses on answering What effect does participation in professional activities have on professional development?
The poster will present the research design, participant sampling, data collection and analysis, findings, implications, and future areas of study. The objectives are threefold:
• Be informed of a qualitative research inquiry exploring the formation of students as they acquire professional behaviors and attitudes in an educational program.
• Be conversant of an intentional learning activity, the professional service activity, and its effect on the development of professional behaviors and attitudes from the student occupational therapist perspective.
• Be able to generalize the study's findings for application to an educational program.
Description: If we agree that shaping professional characteristics is as significant as acquiring knowledge and skills, then why do we struggle with methodology to instill the very attributes sought by the profession? Formation is a complex process. It requires practice, experience, mentorship, and critique. Due to our already full syllabi, the development of professional behaviors and attitudes frequently becomes two dimensional- lecture presentations or self-assessment assignments.
A non-specific term, ‘professional service activity' indicates participation in a field or discipline. Examples include membership in/service to the national association or attending continuing education offerings. In the context of the curriculum's three semester Professional Development Seminars, faculty and staff members assisted in the creation of a list of activities. Activities included both intra- and extra- departmental. The learning activity begins with students self-selecting a professional service activity team of interest. Team members develop, implement, and evaluate the progress and outcomes of their tasks. Integrated classroom assignments seek to reveal a connection between student participation in the professional service activity and the acquisition of professional behaviors and attitudes. The ultimate objective was to determine the effect of an intentional learning activity on the development of professional behaviors and attitudes through the lens of the student occupational therapist.
Faculty and student evaluation is positive: the Professional Service Activity is a viable experience to facilitate professionalism. Summarizing her participation, on student wrote "As clinicians, we will have to work in several different groups. Therefore, I realize that I am going to have to use the same professional traits as I used in the OT bulletin board group. I will have to be adaptable, respectful, and punctual when working with these individuals to make our interventions work. Thus, I will try to keep this new knowledge in mind when I enter into a professional relationship with other professions."
Concluding, professional service activities can assist in shaping our soon-to-be occupational therapy colleagues with the necessary professional behaviors and attitudes for practice in healthcare. The outcomes of the study may be able to be generalized: professional service activities may be an effective, intentional learning task for integration in other educational programs.

Shifting the Focus: The Impact of Learner-Centered Pedagogy in Introductory Biology

Laurie Russell, Elena Bray Speth, and Amanda Sebesta

The science education literature provides ample evidence of the benefits of active learning in terms of student learning, retention, and motivation. The community is now beginning to explore how active learning environments impact other aspects of student learning and development, including affect, metacognition, and self-regulation. It is well established that active learning pedagogies aim to shift classroom dynamics from teacher-centered to learner-centered, increasing students' responsibility for their own learning.
We investigated the impact of an active learning pedagogy on student perceptions of barriers to engagement and learning. This research was conducted in a large-enrollment introductory biology course for science majors at a large private research university. The course had five large sections of about 130 students each, taught by 4 different instructors. Three sections implemented an active pedagogy in a flipped learning environment; specifically, students in these sections were expected to engage with selected content and prescribed homework activities prior to class, and class time was devoted primarily to application, case studies, group work, and model building. The other two course sections implemented a traditional, lecture-based pedagogy. In all sections, we collected (a) evidence of student learning outcomes (based on identical pre-test and post-test questions on fundamental biology concepts taught in the course), and (b) end-of-term survey data documenting students' self-reported perceptions of barriers to classroom engagement and learning.
Analysis of the pre-test/post-test questions showed that learning gains in the active sections were equal to or slightly greater than learning gains in the traditional sections. Survey response data from sections taught by the same instructor were pooled. A single instructor taught two active sections (group A, n=240 respondents), a second instructor taught one active section (group B, n=123 respondents), and two instructors co-taught the two traditional sections (group C, n=188 respondents). Students reported overall higher levels of engagement in the active classroom: 79% of students in group A and 75% of students in group B reported being engaged for 80% or more of class time, compared to 50% of students in group C reporting this level of engagement. Asked to explain the reasons for their lack of engagement, students in the active sections (groups A and B) referred to personal issues unrelated to the course significantly more often than students in the traditional sections (group C). Moreover, group C students perceived the class environment and various aspects of the pedagogy as barriers to engagement significantly more often than their peers. Group C students also identified the class environment and academic resources as obstacles to their learning of biology significantly more often than students in the active sections. Importantly, similar proportions of students in all course sections reported course content, pace or difficulty as a barrier to engagement and learning.
Our data indicate that an active learning pedagogy, while resulting in similar learning gains and similar perceptions of course rigor, promotes, in learners, a shift toward students assuming responsibility for being engaged in class rather than attributing such responsibility to the instructor or the environment.

Simulation Task Trainer versus Cadaver Model in Teaching Chest Tube Placement

Ting Xu Tan and Erin Quattromani

Background: Residents in Emergency Medicine (EM) and Surgery are expected to become skilled and confident in performing tube thoracostomies (chest tubes) during their residency education. There has been no standard or approved educational method for teaching this procedure to residents. Historically, residency programs employ the apprenticeship model of "see one, do one, teach one" at the bedside to teach tube thoracostomy but this method is less favorable as a sole modality. Both cadavers and simulation task trainers (mannequins) have been used in residency education to gain general procedural expertise. To date, there is no study specifically comparing the effectiveness of simulation task trainer versus cadaver model at teaching chest tubes.
Objectives: To compare simulation task trainer versus cadaver for teaching thoracostomy procedural skills to EM and surgery residents.
Methods: This is a prospective, randomized controlled study consisting of residents at a tertiary care teaching hospital. All subjects were randomized into simulation task trainer or cadaver training groups based on their prior experience with chest tube placements. They were given access to audiovisual material on chest tubes prior to their training session. Subjects then participated in a hands-on simulation-based deliberate practice training session according to their assigned simulation modality in July 2015. The training was done one-on-one with a single trained faculty member. Those in the cadaver group practiced with embalmed cadavers while those in the simulator group practiced on a TraumaMan (mannequin) task simulator (SIMULAB Corporation, Seattle, WA). The primary outcomes of this study is confidence in placing a chest tube as well as ability to subsequently place a chest tube in the clinical setting during the six months following the initial training session. Secondary outcomes include retention of chest tube placement skills and confidence in their ability measured six months post-training. Mean scores were compared using two-sample t-test.
Results: Sixteen junior residents (8 EM, 8 surgery residents) participated in the study and were randomized to cadaver group (n=8) and simulation group (n=8). No significant differences in characteristics existed between the two groups in terms of age, prior experience or confidence. Pre-training confidence levels were low for both groups, 2.50 ±1.85 (cadaver) vs 3.00 ±3.07 (simulation), p = 0.70. After training, both groups had a statistically significant increase in mean confidence, 8.00 ±1.31( p <0.001) for simulation and 8.13 ±1.36 (p = 0.002) for cadaver group. There was no statistical significance in post-training confidence between groups (p = 0.85) or in the change in confidence of the two groups (p = 0.67).
Conclusions: Both educational methods of simulation task trainer and cadaver model for teaching chest tube placement are associated with significant increased confidence of the resident. There is no statistically significant difference in increased learner confidence between either modality after initial training. Next we will assess the resident's ability to independently place chest tubes in the clinical setting as well as retention of confidence and procedural skill at a six-month follow up skill session.

Teaching Research Methodology in an Interprofessional Education Setting

Leslie Hinyard and Clair Reynolds

Context: As IPE programs have been shown to improve students' knowledge and attitudes concerning working collaboratively with other health care professionals (Cooper, Carlisle, Gibbs, & Watkins, 2001), the next logical step is for students to understand the importance of how to study and measure such health outcomes. This implies a need for IPE programs to include a course on outcomes-research methodology to aid students in asking IPE/IPP-relevant questions and identify appropriate measures and methods to assess key patient outcomes. Furthermore, a course in health outcomes research methods supports many of the competencies associated with IPE programs, including: problem solving, decision making, communication, shared knowledge and skills, a focus on patient-centered practice, and working collaboratively as a team (Stevenson, Seenan, Morlan, & Smith, 2012).
Purpose: Recognizing the importance of building students' skillsets to address assessment of health outcomes from an interprofessional perspective, the Saint Louis University Center for Interprofessional Education and Research (SLU-CIER), along with the Saint Louis University Center for Outcomes Research (SLUCOR), implemented a health outcomes research course as part of the minor in Interprofessional Practice.
Research design: Students were divided into interprofessional small groups based on their major. The course utilized a scaffolding approach and assessed learning outcomes using two group presentations and one individual reflection paper. The final reflection papers asked students to examine and reflect on their experiences in the course, what they learned, and how their experiences have changed how they will approach problems in the future. A content analysis of the reflection papers is the foundation of this report.
Main Findings: Analyses revealed students firmly believe that stable interprofessional teams were essential for meeting the course objectives and that team stability across the semester helped build the trust necessary to work effectively on their large projects. Additionally, breaking down the research process via the scaffold approach made the difficult topic more manageable and less frightening to students who were initially worried about the larger tasks they were being asked to complete. Finally, it was recommended that the course begin with a review of each profession and how they typically interact within clinical settings for students who do not yet have clinical experience.
Implications for practice: The development and implementation of the course in Interprofessional Health Outcomes Research was a positive experience for both students and the instructor. Utilizing scaffolded, active learning strategies gave the students ownership of their learning allowing them to develop not only an understanding of the research process, but skills in team building and communication with other professionals.

Using Appreciative Inquiry to Develop an Entrepreneurial Mindset

Whitney Linsenmeyer

Research Question: How can appreciative inquiry be used to develop an entrepreneurial mindset in a graduate-level management course?
Background: Entrepreneurship education has been rapidly gaining traction over the past several decades, from just over a dozen colleges and universities offering entrepreneurship courses in 1970 to nearly 1,600 in 2002 (Katz, 2003). Critical to the spirit of entrepreneurship education is the cultivation of an entrepreneurial mindset, which is marked by skills such as creative problem solving, comfort with ambiguity, resilience, and calculated risk-taking (Human, Clark & Baucus, 2005).
Given the newness of entrepreneurship education, best practices for teaching and learning are a relatively new field of research. Many educators are considering appreciative inquiry (AI) as a pedagogical tool that complements the cultivation of an entrepreneurial mindset (Assudani & Kilbourne, 2014). AI is a positive philosophy that convenes whole systems to inspire change by emphasizing conversational learning, positive inquiry, and a shift from fixing what is broken (i.e problem solving) to embracing strengths and greater capacities for the whole (Cooperrider, Whitney & Stavros, 2003). Conklin (2009) outlines the AI process through four phases: discovery (what has been?), dream (what could be?), design (what should be?), and delivery (what will be?).
Though AI has been used in diverse settings, AI as a classroom approach has only emerged in the literature within the past ten years (Conklin & Hartman, 2014). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe how appreciative inquiry can be used to develop an entrepreneurial mindset in a graduate-level management course.
Methods: This paper describes the design of a graduate-level management course to cultivate an entrepreneurial mindset using AI as a pedagogical tool. The four major components of the course (one reflection paper, two group projects, and one networking assignment) will be discussed within the context of the four phases of AI: discovery, dream, design, and delivery.
Illustrative quotes from students' work will be used to demonstrate how each course component guides students through the phases of AI. Additionally, the results of the course evaluation (IDEA) will be used to discuss students' perceptions of how the course met the relevant objectives.
Lastly, this paper discusses the usefulness of AI as a pedagogical tool in various courses beyond the traditional business and management curriculum, and concludes with the need for further research in relevant disciplines.